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35 Cards in this Set

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Ivan Pavlov is famous for his idea of

Classical conditioning

Give three phases of classical conditioning

Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery

"The process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli"

Habituation

Responding more strongly to repeated stimuli over time

Sensitisation

Classical conditioning is

A form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response

Stimulus that does not instinctually elicit a response from the organism

Conditioned stimulus

Unconditioned stimulus

Stimulus that instinctually elicit an automatic, reflexive response from the organism

An automatic response to a non-neutral stimulus

Unconditioned response

Each pairing of CS and UCS is called

Trial

Conditioned response (CR) is

Response that was previously associated with a non-neutral stimulus that is now elicited by a neutral stimulus (CS)

The phase of learning by pairing CS and UCS

Acquisition

What is temporal contiguity?

How close in time the CS and UCS are paired together

When UCS comes before CS, this is called

Backward conditioning

As CS and UCS are presented closer in time, the faster/slower learning occurs?

Faster

Extinction is ?

A phase where CR is reduced and eventually eliminated when CS is given without UCS

When extinct CR re emerges after a delay if the CS is presented again

Spontaneous recovery

When stimuli similar to CS produce CR

Stimulus generalisation

When a weaker CR is shown to stimulus different to original CS

Stimulus discrimination

What is higher-order conditioning?

The difficulty in classical conditioning to a CS we have repeatedly experienced without the UCS (

Latent inhibition

"The process of acquiring through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors"


This is a definition of ?

Learning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punisher

Operant conditioning

reinforcement

Stimulus that ⬆️ response

What does operant conditioning behavior called ?

Shaping

reinforcement

Removing stimulus to ⬆️ response

⬇️ behavior either negatively or positively

Punishment

Primary reinforcer is

An innately reinforcing stimulus (satisfy biological need)

Conditioned reinforcer is

A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer

Partial reinforcement is

Reinforcing a response only part of the time

Partial reinforcement is

Reinforcing a response only part of the time

much greater resistance to extinction


slower acquisition process

Partial reinforcement

The Bobo beat down experiment by Albert Bandura explains

Observational learning

All associations are learned equally ( true/false ) ?

False. Species can more easily learn associations that help them thrive or survive ( animals may differ to one another and different from human)

There are two types of learning which are



A) associative and observational


B) associative and repeated approach


C) kinesthetics and behavorial repetition


D) observational and automatic

A) associative (classical and operant conditioning) and observational (Bobo exp)

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

Modelling