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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define psychology
The SCIENTIFIC study of behavior and mental processes
What is scientific observation?
An empirical investigation that is structured to answer questions about the world
What is research method
A systematic approach to answering scientific questions
What is an animal model?
In research, an animal whose behavior is used to discover principles that may apply to human behavior.
Wha is description in the scientific research?
It is the process of naming and classifying
What is an understanding in psychology?
It is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated
What is prediction?
It is an ability to accurately forecast behavior
What is control?
It is altering conditions that influence behavior
Who is Wilhelm Wundt? What is he known for?
The "father of psychology" who set up the first psychological laboratory to study conscious experience
What is stimulus?
Any physical energy that affects a person and evokes a response
What is introspection?
to look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
What is structuralism?
The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
Who is William James? What did he do?
An American scholar who broadened psychology to include animal behavior, religious experience, abnormal behavior, and other interesting topics
What is functionalism?
School of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments
What is natural selection?
Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions
Who came up with the theory of behaviorism? What is behaviorism?
John B. Watson; it is a school of psychology that emphasizes the study of ovret, observable behavior
Who is B.F. Skinner?
A behaviorist who believed that our actions are controlled by rewards, or positive reinforcers; he created the "Skinner box" where he presented stimuli to animals and record their responses
What is a response?
Any muscular action, gladular activity, or other identifiable aspect of behavior
Cognitive behaviorism
An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior
Gestalt psychology
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Who is Sigmund Freud?
An Austrian doctor who was developing his own psychology theories. According to him, our behavior is deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires-especially those concerning sex and aggression.
What is Freud known for?
Creating psychoanalysis, the first "talking therapy"
What is the unconcious?
Contents of the mind that re beyond awareness, especially impulses anddesires not directly known to a person
What is psychoanalysis
A Freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts
What is psychodynamic theory
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces
Who were the "foremothers" of psychology?
Mary Calkins, Christine Ladd-Franklin, and Margaret Washburn
Who is Abraham Maslow?
The founder of humanistic psychology. He was interested in studying people of exceptional mental health
What is humanism?
An approach to psychology that focuses on himan experience, problems, potentials, and ideals
What is determinism?
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known
What is free will?
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
What is self-actualitzation?
The process of fully developing one's personal potentials
What are the five major views that shape modern psychology?
Psychodynamic, behavioristic, humanistic views, cognitive and biopsychological perspectives
What is positive psychology?
It is the study ofhuman strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
What is cultural relativity?
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
What is a social norm?
Unspoken rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group
What is a psychologist?
A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
What is a clinical psychologist?
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
What is a counseling psychologist?
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of MILDER emotional and behavioral disturbances
What is a psychiatrist?
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders
What is a psychoanalyst?
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis
What is a counselor?
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving SERIOUS mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
What is a psychiatric social worker?
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
What is a scientific method?
Testing the truth of a proposition by careful measurement and controlled observation
What is a hypothesis?
It is the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relatinship between variables
What is an operational definition?
Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. For example, "hunger" might be defined as "the number of hours of food deprivation."
What is a theory?
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observations
How do psychologists gather evidence and test hypotheses?
Through naturalistic observation, correlational method, experimental method, clinical method, and survey method
What is a naturalistic observation?
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
What is correlational method?
Making measurements to discover relationships between events
What is experimental method
Investigating behavior through controlled experimentation
What is survey method?
using questionnaires and surveys to poll large groups of people.
What is an observer effect?
The changes in behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed.
What is anthropomorphic error?
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.
What is correlation?
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables.
What is correlational study?
A non-experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.
What is coefficient of correlation?
A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation.
What is a positive correlation?
An increase in one measure is matched by an increase in another measure.
What is a negative correlation?
An increase in one measure that is associated with a decrease in another measure.
What is an experiment?
A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle.
What is an independent variable?
In an experiment, the condition being investigated a s apossible cause of some change in behavior. the values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
What is dependent variable?
In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
What is extraneous variable?
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment.
What is experimental group?
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition.
What is control group?
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.
What is random assignment?
The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
What is the placebo affect?
Changes in behavior due to expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
What is a single-blind experiment?
An arrangement in which subjects remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group.
What is a double-blind experiment?
An arrangement in which both subjects and experimenters are unaware of whether subjects are in the experimental group or the control group.
What is the experimenter effect?
Changes in subjects' behavior caused by the unintended influence of an experimenter's actions.
What is a case study?
An in-depth focus of all aspects of a single person.
What is natural clinical test?
A natural event that provides data on a psychological phenomenon.
What is survey method?
The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions.
What is representative sample?
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population.
What is courtesy bias?
The tendency to give "polite" or socially desirable answers.
What is critical thinking?
An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critiques, and synthesize information.
What is psedopsychology?
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.
What is unciritical acceptance?
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
What is fallacy to positive instances?
The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations while forgetting discrepancies.
What is the Barnum effect?
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms.