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33 Cards in this Set

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habituation

there is a decrease in response to a stimuli after repeatedly being exposed to it.

sensitization

non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.

associative learning

process by which an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned. The two forms ofassociative learning are classical and operant conditioning.

classical conditioning

a phenomenon that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response; pairing two previously unrelated events ( that produces automatic response)

learning

learning is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the learner due to experience

Ivan Pavlov

conducts a famous experiment studying the process of classical conditioning

acquisition

the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

extinction

The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented

spontaneous recovery(侥幸心理

the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

generalization

the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition

discrimination

the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli

Little Albert's case

US-loud sound is paired with CS-white rat and produce CR-a fearful reaction

error of fear learning

1) too littleno amygdala, no memory


2) too more: over-learning of fear; such as PTSD, over-generalization and problem with extinction

biological preparedness (predisposition)

a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others. For example, rats depend more on taste and smell stimuli but birds depend more on visual cue.

operant conditioning

is the consequence of an organism's behavior determined whether it will be repeated in the future

reinforcer

any stimulus or event that strengthen the behavior

punisher

any stimulus or event that weaken the behavior

reinforcement

the result of strengthening behavior

positive reinforment

the adding of a desirable stimulus in order to strengthen behavior

negative reinforment

the removal of a aversive stimulus in order to strengthen behavior

positive punishment

the adding of a aversive stimulus in order to weaken behavior

negative punishment

the removal of an desirable stimulus in order to weaken behavior

reinforcement is generally more effective than punishment because punishment doesn't guide to the desirable behavior

shaping

an operant conditioning that rewards guide towards the desirable goal behavior.

primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing factor like food and drink

secondary reinforcer

a learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through connection with the primary reinforcer

immediate reinforcer

a reinforcement that comes instantly after a behavior, such as a food pellet after a bar press

delayed reinforcer

a reinforcement that comes a period after the behavior, such as a paycheck after a week of working

continuous reinforcement

after one response there is certainly a reward, not matter how late the reward will be coming


intermittent reinforcement

after a bunch of response there is one reward granted but nor for every response

reinforcement schedule

the schedule for giving reinforcement

fixed ratio schedule

reinforcement after a specific number of respones

variable ratio schedule

reinforcement after a variable number