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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Quality of Instruction
Appropriate level of instruction
Incentive to learn (Motivation)
Time is neither too short not too long
What is intrinsic incentive?
An aspect of an activity that people enjoy and therefore find motivating.
Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
- Self-Actualization Needs
- Aesthetic Needs
- Need to know and Understand
- Esteem Needs
- Belongingness & Love Needs
- Safety Needs
- Physiological Needs
Value is defined as:
Mastery goal-effort/learning
Performance goal-normatively high ability
Behavioral consequences
- Rewards and reinforcement
- Determine the value of an incentive
What is learned helplessness?
The expectation, based on experience, that one's actions will ultimately lead to failure.
What is expectancy theory?
A theory of motivation based on the belief that people's efforts to achieve depend on their expectations of reward.
How teachers communicate positive expectations:
-Wait for students to repsond.
-Avoid unnecessary
achievement distinctions
among students.
-Treat all students equally.
What is expectancy-valence theory?
A theory that relates the probability and the incentive value of success to motivation.
-Allow the learning task and
student needs to dictate
-Provide opportunities for
extended and significant
student involvement in
learning tasks.
-Allow students to progress
at their own rate whenever
-Encourage flexibility in the
scheduling of learning
-Give teachers greater
control over usage through,
for example, block
What is motivation?
Motivation is the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
What is contingent praise?
Praise that is effective because it refers directly to specific task performances.
Reasons for effort:
Mastery goal-learning something new
Performance goal-high grades, performing better than others
Teachers can provide extrinsic incentives to learn by:
-Expressing clear expectations
-Providing clear feedback
-Providing immediate feedback
-Providing requent feedback
-Increasing the value and
availability of extrinsic
Teachers can reward performance, effort, and improvement:
- Using praise effectively
- Teaching students to
praise themselves
- Using grades as incentives
- Individual learning
- Incentive systems based on
goal structure
What is extrinsic incentive?
A reward that is external to the activity, such as recognition or a good grade.
Evaluation critieria:
Mastery goal-absolute progress
Perfoamnce goal-normative
-Grading and reporting
-Practices associated with
use of standardized tests.
-Definition of goals and
-Reduce emphasis on social
comparisons of achievement
by minimizing public
reference to normative
evaluation standards(e.g.,
grades, test scores).
-Establish policies and
procedures that give
students opportunities to
improve their performance
(e.g., study skills,
-Establish grading/reporting
practices that portray
student progress in learning.
-Encourage student
participation in the
evaluation process.
-Enhance intrinsic attractiveness of learning
-Make learning meaningful.
-Encourage instruction that relates to students'
backgrounds and experience.
-Avoid payment (monetary or other) for
attendance, grades, or achievement.
-Foster goal setting and self-regulation.
-Use extraclassroom programs that make learning
experiences relevant.
The general principles of helping students overcome learned helplessness are:
-Accentuate the positive.
-Eliminate the negative.
-Go from the familiar to the
new, using advance
organizers or guided
-Create challenges in which
students actively create
problems and solve them
using their own knowledge
and skills.
Theories of Motivation are:
- Behavioral Learning Theory
- Human Needs
- Attribution Theory
- Expectancy Theory
Teachers can enhance intrinsic motivation by:
-Arousing interest
-Maintaining curiosity
-Using a variety of
interesting presentation
-Helping students set their
own goals.
Maslow defines self-actualitzation need as:
the desrie to become everything that one is capable of becoming
- acceptance of self and others, and all other psychological health
Attribution theory is:
a theory of motivation tht focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures
Focus of attention:
Mastery goal-process of learning
Perfoamnce goal-own performance relative to others'
-Build an environment of
acceptance and appreciation
of all students.
-Broaden the range of social
interaction, particulary of
at-risk students.
-Enhance social skills
-Provide opportunities for
cooperative learning,
problem solving, and
decision making.
-Allow time and opportunity
for peer interaction.
-Foster the developement of
subgroups (teams, schools
within schoools, etc.)
within which significant
interactin can occur.
-Encourage multiple group
membership to increase range
of peer interaction.
-Eliminate ability-grouped
Teachers can increase students' motivation to learn:
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
- Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation
- Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learn
View of errors/mistakes:
Mastery goal-part of learning
Performance goal-anxiety eliciting
What is locus of control?
A personality trait that concerns whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure or success to internal or external factors
What are learning goals?
The goals of students who are motivated primarily by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvment.
Success is defined as:
Mastery goal-improvement, progress
Performance goal-high grades, high normative performance
-Provide optimal freedom for students to make
choices and take responsibility.
-Give alternatives in making
-Ask for student comments on
school life--and take them
-Encourage instructional
programs that encourage
students to take
initiatives and evaluate
their own learning.
-Establish leadership
opportunities for all
Teacher oriented toward:
Mastery goal-how students are learning
Performance goal-how students are performing
Maslow's Needs are divided into what groups?
- Deficiency Needs which are critical to the physical and psychological well-being
- Growth Needs which are critical to the growth and development into knowing and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met
What is achievement motivation?
The desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success depends on personal effort and abilities.
Reasons for satisfaction:
Mastery goal-working hard, challenge
Performance goaol-doing better than others
What are performance goals?
The goals of students who are motivated primarily by a desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades
Motivation can be enhanced by:
- Motivation and Goal Orientations
-Learned Helplessness and Attribution Training
-Teacher Expectations and Achievement
-Anxiety and Achievement
-Encourage the developement
and maintenance of
strategies that enhance task-
goal emphases.
-Underwrite action taken by
staff that is in accord with
a task-goal emphasis.
-Provide opportunities for all students to be
recognized for learning.
-Recognize progress in goal
-Recognize challenge seeking
and innovation
-Foster personal-best awards.
-Reduce emphasis on honor rolls.
-Recognize and prublicize a
wide range of school-related
activities of students.