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53 Cards in this Set

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PSY 345 Week 8: Environmental Influences on Development
Week 8
Environmental Influences on Development
1) Today: __Review of Schooling and Intelligence: cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children
1) Ceci's
Ceci's Review:
1) correlation between __and ___
2) The influence of __on ___
3) Effect of ___ on IQ
4) Effect of ___on IQ
5) Effect of ___on IQ
6) similarity of __and___
7) ___associated with schooling and IQ
8) historical changes in ___link
1) IQ; years of schooling
2) summer vacation; IQ
3) Intermittent School Attendance
4) Delayed onset school
5) early termination of school
6) aptitude; achievement test scores
7) cohort effects
8) schooling-IQ
Ceci's Review: Years of completed education and intelligence
1) the more years of education, the ___ (There is a __relation)
2) correlations between ___
1) higher the scores on test (strong)
2) .6 and .8
Ceci's Review: Summer Vacation and IQ/Achievement
1) IQ __(or__) occurs over summer vacation from school
2) you have 9 months of __, 3 months of ___
3) during the school year IQ __ and then in the summer it ___
1) decrement (slower growth)
2) growth; flatten (slow growth)
3) rises; levels off
Ceci's Review: Summer Vacation and IQ/Achievement
1) argument is that the access to education is much ___during the summer and ___
2) In ___summer activities are least likely to resemble those found in school
3) the data strongly support the existence of __ summer learning. During the summer, the vast majority of children learn ___ than during the school year; moreover, during the summer, socioeconomic and racial inequality ___dramatically
4) comes down to access to __over the summer
1) less; less structured
2) low income kids
3) differential; less rapidly; increases
4) education
Ceci's Review: Summer Vacation and IQ/Achievement
1) overall: even though schools are __, they are a lot ___ than the neighborhoods and non-school environment of the children
1) unequal; more equal
Ceci's Review: Intermittent School Attendance and IQ
1) Children who rarely/intermittently go to school: ___
1) physically disabled; children of gypsies, canal boat pilots
Ceci's Review: Intermittent School Attendance & IQ

1) finding- the kids who have these parents who are moving all the time or are disabled—when you test them in kindergarten or first grade, their scores ___ (missing a grand total of several months of school); in high school if your parents are always moving (you have missed a grand total of several years of school);
2) based on the more you miss school, the ___
1) a BIT lower
2) lower your IQ
Ceci's Review: Intermittent School Attendance & IQ: Evidence from disabled children
1) ___ correlation between age and IQ in physically handicapped
2) __correlation between IQ and number of days attended
3) the older you are, the ___your IQ compared to the average person who is attending school
4) If you actually look how many days, the more days of school they miss, the ___their test scores
1) negative
2) positive
3) lower
4) lower
Ceci's Review: Intermittent School Attendance & IQ: Evidence from the Blue Ridge Mountains
1) Hollow dwelling scottish-irish/english children living in the "hollows" of the mountains; different hollows had different levels of __from the modern villages (all hollows had immigrants from the same ancestries)
2) very little variation in terms of ___, but a lot of variation in regards of __ and __within the hollows
3) Colvin, the most remote of the hollows, had school intermittently. Only 3 of their adults were literate, where the other hollows had varying levels of school; the ___the kids are, the __ education they have relative to the standard
4) results from the hollows: the hollows with the most schooling had much ___IQs than the hollows like Colvin; also, the older the child the __his/her IQ; thus, with the accumulation of missed school, children fell __further behind national __norms
1) isolation
2) background; education; living
3) older; less
4) higher; lower; increasingly; IQ
Ceci's Review: Delayed Onset of School on IQ
1) During WWII many of Holland's elementary schools were __due to the Nazi siege:
-- IQ scores of children __by approximately __
1) closed
2) dropped; 7 IQ points
Ceci's Review: Early Termination of Schooling and IQ
1) Compared Swedish men who___ high school to those who ___high school; the two groups were matched on IQ, SES, and GPA at age 13. Tested for mandatory military registration at age 18.
2) For each year of school not completed, there was a___ of ___, up to a maximum of ___ for two boys matched on IQ, SES, and GPA at 13.
3) Norway changed its compulsory schooling. Everyone was required to finish middle school, found that wasn't enough so they changed it to finish___
1) dropped out of; completed
2) loss; 1.8 IQ points; 8 IQ points
3) high school
Ceci's Review: Similarity of Aptitude (ability) and Achievement Test Scores
1) Correlation btw # of years of schooling completed and your achievement scores—should be a ___
2) really strong argument that ___ is having an effect
3) when you look at scores that you can only learn at school compared to intelligence the correlation is ___
1) high correlation
2) education
3) .8
Ceci's Review: Cohort Effects associated with Schooling and IQ
1) Cahan & Cohen: the ___design
2) Cahen & Cohen Logic: birthday cutoffs for school entry occur in December. You can therefore compare, for example, a student with a birthday 1 day before the cutoff to one with a birthday 1 day after the cutoff. For all purposes, the students are the __, but they differ in a___
3) looking at __vs.__
4) can look at __; can also look at relations between ___
5) person who has had an extra year of schooling but is the same age is ___
6) verbal oddities: ___between grades when their amount of schooling is differing, but their age is only differing by day
7) this is showing that __does play a role in IQ
1) discontinuity
2) same age; year of schooling (like me and Jack)
3) schooling effect; age effect
4) age relations; years of schooling
5) higher
6) huge difference
7) education
PSY 345: Week 8
Week 8: Thursday
Cognitive Recovery in Socially Deprived Young Children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project
Romania orphanages are horrible, kids left to cry all day; foster families are adoptive loving parents; not everyone gets adopted
1) all of the previous research has found that all the kids who get adopted __
2) this time they were first able to eliminate ___
3) they were able to get families to __ some of the kids
4) ___-it is just a complete chance that you get adopted or stay in the institution
1) do better
2) selection effect
3) adopt
4) lotto system
Cognitive Recovery in Socially Deprived Young Children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project: ETHICAL SAFEGUARDS
1) Study initiated at ___ of secretary of state for child protection in Romania and approved by local commissions
2) IRB from all PI institutions (Minnesota, Tulane, Maryland) ____
3)___ with placement of enrolled students in alternative care, except that a kid that got foster care was____ to an institution. (Intent to Treat Approach)
4) Held___ as soon as results started to come out. (to ___ the public about their results)
5) Principal of ___
(evaluated with respect to local [Romanian] __)
1) invitation
2) approved project
3) didn't interfere; never returned
4) press conference; enlighten
5) “Clinical Equipoise”; standard of care
Ethical Safeguards continued...
1) this study has been ___ quite a lot because you are using these kids for science
2) they say it is not just a bunch of scientists gathered in a room saying “lets test these kids”; it was actually the ___of Romania asking them to come in and __
3) if you didn’t win the lottery and get to be adopted it ___ that you can’t be adopted, it just means you don’t get to benefit from this particular___
4) ___-idea that even though you may have strong intuition about what you think the result is going to be, if you don’t know with scientific certainty, you can still do the study
1) criticized
2) government; HELP
3) doesn't mean; lottery system
4) clinical equipoise
Results from Orphanage Study:

1) seeing an ___ for having been randomized to this foster care group
2) have the kids who are __institutionalized, __ institutionalized, and kids that are __institutionalized (foster care); all the kids who won the lotto and got to be adopted—may not have been adopted at __; there is also a lottery for__ it is going to happen (are you going to be 1st, 2nd, 3rd in line?)
3) The earlier you are rescued from these horrible institutions, the___ the test scores; kids who had to wait almost 3 years had __ test scores; relation between time in this institution and the deficit on your child (so: kids who adopted earlier have __ test scores and later have __ test scores)
1) advantage
2) never; partially; always; the same time; when
3) higher; lower; higher; lower
Experiential Effects on Personality and Well-Being
1) another study in Quebec; ___: psychological and physical consequences of inadequate orphanages care 50 years later
2) compared to a set group for __, also __; having a crappy life puts you in much ___; __can matter a lot
3) the orphans were feeling very __that they were much more likely to ___
4) the __seem to play a big role here
5) close to 70% of the orphans __ compared to the controls
1) unwanted infants
2) chronic illness; psychosocial adaptation (being married vs. not kind of thing); worse shape; extreme environments
3) psychologically distressed; commit suicide
4) environments
5) didn't show emotion
1) family and juvenile courts have identified these kids as being abused and neglected, now that they are grown up, they have been __etc.
2) abused and neglected compared to those like them; experience of being abused leads to a ___
Cycle of Violence
1) arrested
2) cycle of violence
Adaptation and the set point model of __well-being: does happiness change after major life events?
1) __-people can adapt to almost any life event and that happiness levels ___around a ___determined __ that rarely changes
Adaptation and the set-point model of subjective well-being
1) set point theory-- fluctuate; biologically; set point
Schematic of Study Approach:
1) __,___,___
2) really interested in __ of it; __ a whole decade of joy from winning the lottery; says about __to get over things; like marriage, get a __then in __back to normal; widowhood, get close to where you were before ___
3) with disabilities, they get to a low point and __
4) __-having benefits or consequences of environmental event
5)___-can be a phase where you return back to somewhere close to your baseline phase
1) baseline, reaction, adaptation
2) time scale; shouldn't have; 7 years; high; 7 years; after 7 years
3) stay at that low point
4) reaction phase
5) adaptation phase
Do people react differently to marriage?
1) __, get a __, then goes ___
1) yes; high (or low); back down
Do people adapt to marriage differently?
1) starting at ___, then some people __
1) same place; go up and some people go down
People who go on to stay married and people who go on to get divorced:
1) People who are __are more likely to get a divorce
2) People who are on the peak when they get engaged __and people who are on the peak when they get married ___
1) less happy
2) get divorced; stay married
Extraversion and Neuroticism as predictors of ____: a _____
1) how are Extraversion and Neuroticism influenced by positive and negative life events? maybe ___to experience some things and then those things might __
objective life events; longitudinal analysis
1) more likely; change your personality
Predictions? According to Nettle:
1) Extraversion = ___
2) Neuroticism = ___
1) response to reward
2) response to threat
Costs and Benefits of Extraversion and Neuroticism
1) Benefit: mating success; social allies; exploration of environment
2) Benefit: vigilance to dangers; striving and competitiveness
3) Cost: stress and depression, with interpersonal and health consequences
4) Cost: physical risks; reduced family stability
1) extraversion
2) neuroticism
3) neuroticism
4) extraversion
Longitudinal Results:
1) the more extraverted you are, the more likely you are to experience ___
2) Positive events may be leading people to be ___
3) The more neurotic people are going on to experience more____
4) Negative life events and ___
5) THE POINT: how your ___ CAN change your emotions and well being AND how your ___ can lead to different things
1) positive events
2) more extraverted
3) negative events
4) neuroticism
5) experiences; personality
1) the interrelationship of genetic mechanisms and behavior
2) genetic mechanisms and bio, psycho, and social environments combine and interact to produce development of biological and cognitive structures that underlie___--basically saying genetics and other factors go into behavior
1) behavior genetics
2) behavior genetics; behavior
How do genes work?
1) __codes for ___
2) __are the major players in cell function
3) ___are coils of DNA containing ___
4) only __ of genes vary from person to person
5) genes-you get __from mom and __from dad
6) lots of mixed up to form ___pairs of chromosomes
1) DNA; proteins
2) proteins
3) chromosomes; many genes
4) 1%
5) 1/2; 1/2
6) 23
Pearson's coefficient:
1) was interested in __the relationship between siblings; if resembled one another might be evidence that __are important; plotted sisters intelligence scores against another, found ___
2) two explanations--they are___, but also raised in ___; calculated physical correlation, physical characteristics are obviously ___, ___can be either way;
3) compare __to__--virtually __means--says mental characteristics must also be __
1) quantifying; genes; correlation
2) genetically related; the same home; genetic; psychological characteristics
3) physical correlation; psychological; identical; genetic
What we know:
1) Identical twins (__) share ___of genes
2) Unidentical twins (__) and siblings share, on average,___ of genes that vary within humans
3) half siblings share, on average___
4) adopted siblings share ___
1) MZ twins; 100%
2) DZ twins; 50%
3) 25%
4) 0%
1) what are the letters?
2) A = (oftentimes __) ____; when additive and non-additive will be called ___
3) C = ___
4) E = ___
1) A,C, & E
2) additive; genetic influences; G
3) shared environment
4) non shared environment
1) A = ___
2) C = ___-environments that siblings share (i.e. varies __families not __families), such that they serve to make them ___
3) E = ___-environments that siblings don't share (i.e. that vary __families), such that they serve to make them __, we'll call it
1) genetic influences
2) shared environment; between; within; more similar
3) non shared environment; within; less similar
Family-Based Designs:
1) compare MZ twins raised __
2) compare biological parents and the children __
3) compare unrelated adopted siblings raised ___
4) compare MZ and DZ twins raised __
1) apart
2) they gave up
3) together
4) together
Formulas for each paradigm?
1) rMZA = __ (raised apart)
2) r Adopted Sibs = __
3) r MZT = ___ (raised together)
4) E =___
1) G
2) C
3) G + C
4) 1- rMZT
Formulas for each paradigm?
1) rMZT = ___
2) rDZT = ___
3) 2 (rMZT-rDZT) = __
4) rMZT - A = ___
5) 1- rMZT = __
1) A + C
2) .5A + C
3) A
4) C
5) E
(slightly unrealistic) assumptions:
1) no __-people tend to reproduce with people who are genetically similar to them; fraternal twins are more genetically similar; underestimate how much genes matter
2) random placement of ___-unlikely, tend to be better homes in general, still in similar homes
3) additive influences of __and__
4) genes and environment ___
5) no __or __ (some designs)
1) assortive mating
2) adoptees
3) genes and environments
4) uncorrelated
5) dominance; epistasis
1) MZ twins are __identical, with all the same genes and same environments; leftover __are the ___
2) MZ resemblance on IQ? __; btw _and__ (right at _); not much room left for __
3) random individuals scores are going to be about __points apart; with twins, difference in IQ scores and have as similar scores as if they were to take the test __
4) verbal and spatial abilities environment __affecting them
5) maybe normal environments the slope is __and once gets to abnormal environment the slope gets ___
6) what about big 5? Identical twin correlation is __the fraternal twin correlation
7) religiousity? pretty __; some ___
1) 70%; 30%; nonshared environment
2) really high; .6 and .8; .7; environment
3) 17; twice
4) aren't really
5) smaller; steeper
6) double
7) highly genetic; nonshared environment
There are __laws of behavior genetics:
1) First Law: All ___ are ___
2) Second Law: The effect of ___ is __than the effect of __
3) Third Law: A substantial portion of the __ in complex human behavioral traits is NOT accounted for by the ____
3 Laws of Behavior Genetics:
1) human behavioral traits; heritable
2) being raised in the same family; smaller; genes
3) variation; effects of genes or families
Laws of behavioral Genetics and what they mean--3 laws
1) everything is __; people we are testing are heritably greater than __; Turkheimer's arguing that at this point that's a silly question because it is obvious that __ALWAYS matter; might be more interesting HOW much and WHY do they matter
2) not only do __matter, but it is almost always the case that __matter more than the ___; __seems to account for a lot
3) Implications-___is unimportant; __is important
1) heritable; zero; genes
2) genes; genes; shared environment; unshared environment
3) shared environment; non shared environment
Molarity vs. Modularity of Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities
1) If SAME genes and environmental factors influence DIFFERENT dimensions of cognitive functioning, then this explanation would best fit
2) If cognitive processing is controlled by DIFFERENT genes and environmental factors then this explanation would best fit the data
3) a unitary, general process functions across a wide variety of cognitive tasks
4) numerous distinct cognitive processing units, each responsible for certain nonoverlapping cognitive tasks
1) molar
2) modular
3) molar system
4) modular system
Molarity vs. Modularity of Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities
1) General ability = __
2) Broad abilities = ___
3) Specific Tests = __
1) 50%
2) 25%
3) 25%
1) this is ___-if two twins raised apart and one scores on verbal is predictive of the other twins score on math
2) turns out that predominant action of genes is at the ___level; If you are good across the board it's in large part due to __
3) genetic influences ___
4) environment influences ___
1) molar
2) molar; genes
3) molar
4) molar and modular
1) a single gene can have ___(__)
1) broad effects (pleiotropy)
A single gene can have broad effects (pleiotropy) by:
1) Influencing __brain region, which in turn influences __of functioning
2) Influencing ___brain region, each of which affects a __ of functioning
3) Influencing __brain region, each of which in turn affects ___ of functioning
1) one; many different domains
2) several; specific domain
3) several; several domains
Gene Environment Correlation: Scar and McArtney--__ kinds of genotype-> environment effects: ___
3 kinds of genotype->environmental effects
1) passive
2) active
3) evocative
Gene Environment Correlation: Scar and McArtney--3 kinds of genotype--> environmental effects:
1) parents provide a environment that is correlated with the genotype of the child
2) child receives responses from others that are influenced by his/her genotype
3) child selectively attends to any learns from aspects of his environment as influenced by her genotype; she seeks out the environments that she finds compatible and stimulating
1) passive
2) evocative
3) active