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31 Cards in this Set

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What are the three shapes of prokaryotic cells?

Rods (Bacilli), Round (Cocci), and Spiral (Spirilla)

What are the three types of spiral prokaryotic shaped cells?

Vibrio(horseshoe), spirilla(only 1 or 2 turns), and spirochetes(many turns)

What are the three prefixes used to describe prokaryotic cell shape?

Diplo (2), strepto (chain), and staphylo (cluster)

What prevents the cell from taking on any shape that it wants?

The cell wall

What does pleomorphic mean?

It has no cell wall and can be many different shapes

Name two things that eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotes do not.

A nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

What is the function of flagella in prokaryotic cells?

Aids the cell in movement.

By what means do prokaryotes move?

Prokaryotes use the flagella to move in a run and tumble type of movement, the ability to do so is called chemotaxis

What are the four types of flagella arrangement?

Monotrichous(1), lophotrichous (many from same side), amphitrichous (one at each end), and peritrichous (many all over)

What is the function of pili?

Bacterial sex, meaning the exchange of genes between bacteria

Describe the Glycocalyx.

It contains two layers that protect the bacteria. The first is a slime layer that is used for sticking to certain surfaces that the bacteria may want to invade. The second is a capsule later that is for hiding the components of the bacteria from the immune system of the infected so that it does not fight back.

Describe a Gram + Cell wall.

It is made up of many layers of peptidoglycan which will stain purple very easily with a crystal violet stain. If the human immune system detects a Gram + Cell wall, it immediately is on alert, because we do not have peptidoglycan in our bodies.

Describe a Gram - Cell wall

The Gram - Cell wall is more complex because it contains an outer membrane made up of lipopolysaccharides. However, the layer of peptidoglycan is much thinner in these cell walls and therefore does not stain as easily.

What happens if lipopolysaccharides are detected in the human body?

The immune system will be extremely sensitive to these and will cause a fever in the human because we are not supposed to have lipopolysaccharides in our bodies.

What holds peptidoglycan together?

Teichoic Acid

What is the significance of a cell wall in a pathogen?

A pathogen is deemed effective when they have the ability to hide their cell wall from the organism they are invading. Once the organism detects the cell wall, they know that it is a foreign body and will start to attack it.

How will penicillin affect a pathogen?

Penicillin will not allow the growth of the pathogen. This takes time and will not work on preexisting pathogens, but will attack newly created ones so that the pathogen cannot grow. It causes the cell walls to burst in newly made pathogens.

How does lysozyme affect the cell wall of prokaryotes?

Lysozymes will immediately digest the peptidoglycan found in the cell walls.

Name four functions of the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells.

1. To be the gatekeeper to determine that material that is being let in or sent out.


2. To provide the cell with communication both the inside and outside of the cell.


3. Sensation to detect different proteins


4. Complex enzomatic reactions set up.

What is the cytoplasm made up of and what are its two forms?

Water and protein. The two forms are cytoplasm which uses to proteins to form a gel, and the cytosol which is a liquid form from the water.

What are 3 functions of proteins inside of the cytoplasm?

The proteins will help create the cytoplasm in gel form, they make up cytoskeleton, and help with nutrients and waste used by the cell.

What is the purpose of ribosomes in prokaryotic cells?

Ribosomes are responsible for construction of each protein. They have the directions that explain what nucleic acid goes where and all other information about the protein structure. They essentially are the protein builders by putting together these amino acid chains.

What is the number associated with prokaryotic ribosomes?

70s

What is the function of inclusion granules?

Inclusion granules store nutrients such as glycogen, phosphates, etc.

What is the function of the nucleoid?

The nucleoid houses the DNA in the prokaryotic cell, and they always maintain a circular structure in order to fit into other structures.

What are the 3 functions of plasmids?

1. They contain an extra circle of DNA


2. It is responsible for replication of DNA information


3. Has a big role in antibiotic resistance because information is exchanged here through bacterial sex

Describe endospores.

Endospores are only found in a few Gram + cell walls and they serve to protect the DNA information in the cell under very harsh conditions, and is basically responsible for its survival in these environments.

Name 4 unusual prokaryotes.

Cyanobacteria, Green & purple sulfur bacteria, Fruiting, Gliding bacteria, and archeans.

What are some characteristics of cyanobacteria?

Cyanobacteria can make its own food through photosynthesis, it is very common (anything green in a bathtub, marsh, body of water, etc). It is also ancient and was the first organism to make O2.

What is unique about green and purple sulfur bacteria?

They are photosynthetic, but they are anaerobic, meaning they do not give off oxygen in the process.

Name some characteristics about fruiting, gliding bacteria.

They aggregate in places like soil and dung, and they can move but do not contain any flagella. They form in communities and colonies of bacteria with fruiting bodies big enough to be seen with the human eye.