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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an example of abstraction?

eg. misleading advertisements
What is false memories?

When people are presented with a list of words that relate to another word that isn't on the list (eg. rain) and when asked to recall the list they mention rain.

Briefly describe the principle of abstraction and generalisation

- lose specific info after a study

- retain general/basic info

-> representations isn't the exact info that was first studied (LTM stores 'gist' of info.

What is repetition priming?

When an item is repeated, it is easier to remember and results in a lower response time (RT)

Define priming
When exposure to one stimulus influences a response to another stimulus
The reduction in priming: Hyperspecificity means that?

Surface info (colour and font) is represented in memory
Attenuation of priming is evidence for what?

the fact that actual perceptual surface details are represented in memory
Main principles of hyperspecificity


- Memory for surface features exists

- found primarily on

indirect tests of memory (priming) and explicit tests (recognition involving images)

- Explanations and models must accommodate hyperspecificity

- Favors models that retain all aspects of each stimulus experience

What is the principle of encoding specificity?


- A retrieval cue is effective if and only if it was encoded at study

- Encoding specificity rejects the ideas

Encoding operations of class X (e.g., deep encoding) are always better than those of class Y

Retrieval cues of class X (e.g., strong associates) are always better than Y

- The match between study and test matters

What is state-dependent memory?

= idea that memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed
What factors determine hyperspecificity?



- memory tasks require processing of specific cues

- memory benefits from cue present at study is repeated at test

(eg. repetition priming = implicit, recognition of images = explicit

What factors determine abstraction?

- non-specific, direct (explicit) tests (eg. free recall)

- adaption is adaptive and useful

- maladaptive when let into abstraction

- false memory