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161 Cards in this Set

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What does OPIM stand for?

Other Potentially Infectious Materials

What does Lyophilized mean?

You need to add saline to dilute it.

What are the normal blood pressure ranges?

Systolic: 90-120




Diastolic: 60-80

What is an embolism?

Something lodged in an artery blocking air and blood flow.

What causes phlebitis and how can you stop the vein from swelling?

Caused by an irritation.




You can stop the vein from swelling by applying moist heat.

What is transfixation?

When the needle goes all of the way through the vein.

What is vectorbourne transmission?

When mammals or insects are infected with a pathogen and transmit it to humans.

What does Planar do?

It provides a two dimensional view of an organ being imaged.

What is PET?

Positron Emission Tomography




It produces high energy three dimensional images.




It is just like SPECT but with much higher energy (it is more radioactive) and provides a clearer picture.

What is pulse oximetry used for and what is the normal range?

It is an instrument used to monitor the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.




Normal range is 95-100%

Nasogastric Tubes

Inserted through the nose and into the stomach.




They can check gastric fluids, drain fluids, and are used for feeding.

Contact Isolation

Used to prevent the spread of diseases that can be spread through contact with open wounds.

What does aspirate mean?

To inhale food into lungs



What does tomography mean?

"To cut in sections". Images cut sections of an object.



What does ALARA stand for?

As Low As Reasonably Achievable

What does CPR stand for?

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Syncope

Means Fainting.




Lay patient down if they are prone to fainting during shots or feel like they may faint.




Put a cool rag on a patients face to try to bring their blood pressure back up after fainting.



Systolic

The top number in blood pressure.




Refers to the contraction (emptying) of the left ventricle of the heart.

What must be included in documentation when medication is given to a patient?

1. Name of the medication.




2. The dose that was given.




3. The name of the person that gave the medication.




4. The route of administration.

What is tachycardia?

A fast heart rate that is above 100 beats per minute.

How can you avoid extravasion (infiltration)?

Check for flashback




Immobilize the needle or catheter at the injection site




Check for discomfort, resistance, or swelling.


What are the 4 vital signs?

1. Temperature




2. Blood Pressure




3. Pulse




4. Respiration Rate

What does SPECT stand for and what does it do?

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography




It provides three dimensional views of organ being imaged and has volume.

What is the NRC?

Nuclear Regulatory Commission




They govern all radioactive machines.

Where can you find the apical pulse location?

The apex of the heart.

Where can you find the dorsalis pedis pulse location?

On the top of the foot between the first and second toe.

What are the six rights?

1. Right Dose




2. Right Medication




3. Right Patient




4. Right Time




5. Right Route (Orally or IV)




6. Right Documentation

What is surgical asepsis?

Procedures to eliminate microorganisms.

What is medical asepsis?

The absence of germs

Where should intrathecal medications be administered?

Into the subarachnoid space.

What are microorganisms?

Any type of bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi, etc.



What is aseptic technique?

Keeping something sterile that is already sterile.

Radionuclide

AKA Radioisotope




An unstable form of a chemical element that radioactively decays, resulting in the emission of nuclear radiation.

Airborne Isolation

Used with patients who have or are suspected of having an airborne transmitted infection.




Suspended in air for long periods of time.




5 microns or smaller.




They need special ventilation with negative pressure.

What is radiation?

The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.

What is bradycardia?

A slow heart rate that beats less than 60 beats per minute.


Syringe Shield

A shield usually made of lead glass that reduces hand exposure to radiation.

Dual Head Gamma Camera is used for what?

They are good for imaging the whole body. They can do cardiac imaging at a 90 degree angle.

What is radioactive decay?

The spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter from the nucleus.

Droplet Precautions

Transmission occurs when droplets containing germs from the infected person are propelled a short distance through the air and deposited on the host's body.




No special ventilation needed.

What are syringes measured in?

Cubic Centimeters (CC's)

Diastolic

The bottom number of blood pressure.




Refers to the relaxation of the left ventricle of the heart (filling up with blood).

What is cohorting?

When patients with the same disease are placed in the same room.




This is not recommended because the patients can pass the disease back and forth or they may have different strains of the disease.

What is nuclear medicine technology?

An allied health specialty which utilizes radioactive materials to diagnose and treat diseases. It looks at both structure and function.

What are the eight parenteral routes of administration?

1. Intravenous (into the vein)


2. Intra-arterial (into the artery)


3. Intramuscular (into the muscle)


4. Intracardiac (into the heart)


5. Subcutaneous (under the skin)


6. Intradermal (into the skin)


7. Intrathecal (into the spinal cord)


8. Intraperitoneal (into the periteum)

When inserting a needle what direction should the bevel go?

Up

Where can you find the femoral pulse location?

The inner thigh.

What is the correct angle for insertion of a needle intravenously?

A 20-30 degree angle

What is the correct angle of instertion of a needle intramuscularly?

A 90 degree angle

What are the 4 levels of evacuation and explain them.

1.Partial (an isolated area)




2. Lateral (an entire department)




3. Vertical (an entire floor go lower if possible)




4. Complete (the entire building)

What is a pathogen?

Anything that can produce disease.

Strict Isolation

Used for the most contagious diseases.




The patient is kept in a separate room from other patients.




Health care staff contact is minimal.

What is a sphygmomanometer?

A blood pressure cuff.

What is the average respiration rate for adults and infants?

Adults: 12-18 breaths per min (generally 16-20)




Infants: 30-60 breaths per min

Where can you find the brachial pulse location?

On the arm between the bicep and tricep.

What is the correct angle for insertion of a needle intradermaly?

A 15 degree angle.

What is a triple head gamma camera used for?

Only used for SPECT imaging. It takes a 360 degree image of a body part.

Survey Meter

A portable radiation detection and measurement instrument used to check personnel, equipment, and facilities for radioactive contamination, or to measure external or ambient ionizing radiation fields.

Radioactive Waste

Waste that contains radioactive material.

The term gauge refers to a hypodermic needle's:

Diameter

How many times can a vial be punctured?

Two times.

What are the normal pulse ranges for infants, youths, and adults?

Infants: 120 bpm




Youths: 90-100 bpm




Adults: 60-100 bpm

What are the normal ranges of temperature?

97.8 degrees to 99.1 degrees

What is a single head gamma camera used for?

Used when scanning one spot and leaving the camera there.

What should you do first after an exposure incident?

Washed the exposed area.

To best determine what personal protective equipment you should use in your job what should you refer to?

Your employer's exposure control plan.

What are the routes of pharmaceutical administration?

Topical: Epicutaneous




Sublingual: Under the tongue




Enteral: Involves any part of the gastrointestinal tract.


-By mouth


-By gastric feeding tube


-By Duodenal feeding tube


-By gastrostomy



What is the half life, primary energy, production method, decay method, and abbreviation of Technetium-99m?

Half Life: 6 hours




Primary Energy: 140 keV




Production Method: Generator




Decay Method: Isomeric Transition (IT)




Abbreviation: 99mTc

What is the correct angle for insertion of a needle subcutaneously?

45 degrees

What are anticoagulants used for, what class are they in, and give an example.

Why Used: Treat/prevent blood clots: for DVT/PE, AMI, Afib




Class: Coagulation




Example: Heparin

What is a gamma camera?

An instrument used to produce nuclear medicine images.

The OSHA bloodborne standard requires that:

All appropriate employees must be offered the HBV vaccine at not cost.

An employer's exposure control plan is required to:

Identify which employees must receive bloodborne pathogen training.

Radiation Therapy

The treatment of disease, especially cancer, using x-rays or similar forms of radiation.

What is the yearly exposure limit that was established in 1959?

5 rem per year

What does NMTCB stand for and what is it?

Nuclear Medicine Technologist Certification Board. It is a registry exam. The credential received for passing this exam is CNMT.

What are the 4 locations of thermometer placement and what are their temperature variations?

Rectal (butt)- Runs warm




Oral (mouth)- Accurate




Axillary (armpit)- Runs cool add 1 degree




Timpani (temple)- Runs cool add 1 degree

What part of the needle can you see the flash in?

The needle hub.




What does ambulatory mean?

Able to walk.

Where is the posterior pulse location?

On the inner ankle.

What is the class and reason for use of antibiotics?

Class: Antiinfectives




Used For: Treat/prevent bacterial infections.

What the class and reason for use of antineoplastics?

Class: Antiinfectives




Used For: To treat cancer.

What is a radioisotope?

A version of a chemical element that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form.

What is the class, reason for use, and 3 examples of hypotensives?

Class: Cardiovascular




Used For: Reduce blood pressure.




Examples: ACE-inhibitors, captopril, and enalapril

What is the class and reason for use of analgesics?

Class: CNS-Agents




Used For: Pain, reverse opiate-induced sedation, and respiratory depression.

What is the class, reason for use, and an example of antihistamines?

Class: Allergies




Used For: Prevent allergic reactions.




Example: Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) you must know the long difficult word in bold.

What type of cancer can an HBV infection cause?

Liver cancer

The OSHA bloodborne standard covers:

All employees who may reasonably expect to be exposed to blood and other potentially infectious material that may contain pathogens.

What is the number of people infected with HIV in the United States?

1 in 250

If blood from a victim receiving first aid splashes in your eye, you should first:

Flush the area with running water for 20 minutes.

When should you follow universal precautions?

When in proximity to any body fluid from any person.

After use, dispose of contaminated medical exam gloves in:

A biohazard container.

An example of an effective disinfectant is a:

10% bleach solution

Proper hand washing technique includes:

Removing jewelry before washing.




Keeping hands lower than elbows during hand washing.




Using a paper towel to turn off the water.

Biohazard warning labels must be prominently displayed on:

Laundry bags used to hold and transport contaminated clothing.

Eye was stations are an example of:

An engineering control

You can help prevent HIV transmission with:

Proper hand washing.




Use of barriers such as gloves and gowns.




Universal precautions.

HCV can be transmitted by:

Sharing needles for drug injections.




Dirty body piercing tools.




Sharing a toothbrush.

What class and the reason for diuretics?

Class: Water/electrolytes




Used For: To remove fluid.

When were the first radiation burns reported?

January 1896

The OSHA booldborne standard requires training for appropriate employees every:

12 Months

Thomas Edision

Cautioned against the continued use of x-rays and abandoned his own research in this area in 1896.

November 1896

Elihu Thompson intentionally exposed his little finger to radiation over a period of a few days and then cautioned against over exposure "...or there may be cause for regret when too late."

What does ARRT stand for and what is it?

It is a board test. American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. The credential earned for passing this test is RT(N)

What did William Herbert Rollins do and when?

Proposed almost all of the protective measures now employed in x-ray systems between 1896 and 1899.

When was the first x-ray photograph taken and what was it taken of?

December 22, 1895.




It was taken of Mrs. Roentgen's hand.

What did Marie Curie do and when?

She named the mysterious rays "radioactivity" in 1897.

What is the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and the 1954

Amendments to the act establish the atomic energy commission to regulate source, special nuclear, and by product material.

What did Emilio Segre and Glenn Seaborg do and when?

They discovered Technetium-99m in 1938

What did William Conrad Roentgen do and when?

Discovered the x-ray on November 8, 1895.

What did Henri Becquerel do and when?

Discovered radioactivity on February 1896.

What did Georg de Hevesy, J.A. Christiansen, and Sven Lomholt do and when?

He performed the first radiotracer (lead-210 and bismuth-210) studies on animals in 1924.

What are nosocomial infections?

They are infections inquired during the course of care.

What are personnel monitoring devices?

Devices that are provided to individuals who are likely to come in contact with at least .5 rem radiation exposure. They measure the radiation exposure from x-ray sources.

What mode of transmission has accounted for most documented cases of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens?

Through puncture wounds.

What is a radiation source?

The object or person that is emitting radiation.

What is a hot lab?

Where radioactive materials are prepared and stored.

Human body fluids that may contain bloodborne pathogens include:

Blood




Cerebrospinal Fluid




Semen

What are radiopharmaceuticals?

Radioactive compounds used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

What does NPO stand mean?

Nothing By Mouth

Describe the term half-life

The amount of time it takes for a radiopharmaceutical to lose half of its radioactivity.

According to the American Medical Association, patient information material must be written at what grade level?

A fifth-grade level.

Where is the temporal pulse location?

The temple.

Where is the popliteal pulse location?

On the back of the knee

Where is the carotid pulse location?

On the front of the neck.

Where is the radial pulse location?

On the wrist

If bleeding occurs during withdrawal of a needle following injection one should:

Apply pressure

In fire safety what does RACE and PASS stand for?

Race=Rescue Alarm Contain Extinguish




Pass=Pull Aim Squeeze Sweep

How long must dose calibrator QC records be kept?

3 Years

What 4 things must be included in dose calibrator QC records?

Model and serial number of the instrument.




Date of calibration.




Results of calibration.




The name of the individual who performed the test.

Dose calibrator QC procedures (accuracy, constancy, linearity, and geometry) are generally performed:

Accuracy: At installation, after repairs, and annually




Constancy: Daily




Linearity: At installation, after repairs, and quarterly




Geometry: At installation and after repairs.

All dose calibrator QC procedures are performed:

As per manufactures' recommendations.

What is the half-life, abbreviation, primary energy, production method, and decay method of Iodine-123?

Half-Life: 13 hours




Abbreviation: 123I




Primary Energy: 159 keV




Production Method: Cyclotron




Decay Method: Electron Capture (EC)

What is the half-life, abbreviation, primary energy, production method, and decay method of Iodine-131?

Half-Life: 8 days




Abbreviation: 131I




Primary Energy: 364 keV




Production Method: Reactor




Decay Method: Beta decay (B-)

What is the half-life, abbreviation, primary energy, production method, and decay method of Xenon-133?

Half-Life: 5.3 days




Abbreviation: 133Xe




Primary Energy: 80 keV




Production Method: Reactor




Decay Method: Beta Decay (B-)

What does TEDE stand for?

Total Effective Dose Equivalent

A patient can be released if:

Their total effective dose equivalent does not exceed .5rem or 500mrem from that person.

A patient that was given iodine-131 can be released if they are given less than ________ or their measured exposure rate is less than _______ at 1 meter.

Given less than 30mCl




Exposure rate is less than 7mR/hr

In order to release a patient calculations must be made showing that the TEDE to another person will be no more than:

0.5rem

If a patient is given a dose more than 30mCl of iodine-131 what precautions must be taken after treatment?

They either need to be kept in house or make arrangements to live alone for a while.

How often should surveys be conducted?

Daily

What is the proper way to survey?

Slowly move around the room with the survey meter close to but not touching surfaces that have a possibility of contamination.

What else is a survey meter known as?

- Geiger Muller Detector




-GM detector

What does NIST stand for and what do they do?

National Institute of Standards and Technology.




They check machines to known sources to check accuracy.

How does survey meter quality control check for accuracy?

Calibration is done annually and following repair.




It is compared to NIST standard.

How does survey meter quality control check constancy?

It is performed daily.




If the reading is not within 10% of the expected results it should be recalibrated.




It should give the same activity day in and day out.

Personnel monitoring devises are required for occupational workers that receive in one year a dose in excess of:

0.5rem or 10% the annual limit of exposure from external radiation sources. Or if they are entering high or very-high radiation areas. Ex. Nuclear power plant.

The lens of the eye must receive less than _____rem per year.

15rem per year

Extremities or any organ must receive less than ____rem per year.

50rem per year.

An embryo/fetus must receive less than ____rem per year.

0.5rem per year

What are three types of monitoring devices?

Film badges




Pocket ionization chambers (pocket dosimeter)




Thermoluminescent dosimeters

What does CFR stand for and what do they do?

Code of Federal Regulations. All NRS regulations are published here.

On an everyday basis what is our biggest source of radiation?

We receive our biggest source of radiation from buildings because they have radon in them.

What does fomite mean?

The transfer of microorganisms by touching something contaminated. Ex. keyboard or phone

Name six factors that increase the potential for a nosocomial infections.

Age




Heredity




Nutritional Status




Stress




Inadequate rest/exercise




Personal Habits

What is the cycle of infections?

Infectious agent




Reservoir




Exit Portal




Means of transportation




Entry portal to a new host

When should you wash your hands when dealing with patients?

Before and after patient contact.



How often should you change gloves?

When finished with each patient and when changing tasks.

What are the two categories that pathogens fall into?

Blood borne and airborne

How much is your exposure reduced by doubling your distance from the radiation source?

It is reduced by a factor of 4. So you would be receiving 1/4 of the exposure.

How do you calculate your exposure?

You multiply the amount of time you were standing by the radiation source by what the dose rate was.