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64 Cards in this Set

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This is a common disease of chickens but less common in Turkeys that occurs under warm, humid conditions.
most economically significant intestinal
disease of poultry
coccidiosis causes four main issues:
1. decreased nutrient absorbtion
2. dehydration
3. blood loss anemia
4. increased susceptibility to secondary infections
Describe coccidial diarrhea in chickens and turkeys.
Chickens- mucoid or bloody
Turkeys - rarely bloody
Coccidia: Proximal one-third intestine (duodenum)
E. acervulina
Middle one-third of intestine (jej)
E. necatrix
E. maxima
Caudal third of intestine (cecum and colon)
E. tenella
E. burnetti
Coccidia: Describe the difference in mucosa in the proximal two thirds and distal two thirds.
Prox. 2/3 - petechiae, grey to white plaque-like exudate
Distal 2/3 - mucosal erosions/ulcers with hemorrhagic or finbrinonecrotic plaque
Necrosis of cecae and liver.
Most economically significant disease of turkeys
Histomoniasis is a disease of what species generally?
3 routes of infection of Histomoniasis:
1. ingestion of cecal worm eggs containing larvae
2. ingestion of earthworms containing cecal worm larvae
3. Ingestion of fresh feces
Histomoniasis - which worm related?
Cecal worm - Heterakais gallinarum
yellow sulfur colored feces
target lesions in liver
Bilateral enlargement of cecae with caseous cecal cores
M/M in Histomoniasis?
high M/M
Chickens and histomoniasis?
Chickens only mild disease, remain carriers.
Raised caseous lesions in mouth, pharynx, esophagus and crop.
etiologic agent of trichomoniasis?
Trichomonas gallinae
Trichomoniasis is doves/pigeons?
In falcons?
Raised yellow caseous plaques in upper GI
Thrush affects what age group?
Young birds < 3 months
Sour crop
Thrush (candidiasis)
white circular raised plaques with pseudomembranes covering foci in crop
Can get proventricular hemorrhage with this disease
Ingluvitis occurs with this disease.
Bonus: what else causes ingluvitis?
Bonus: Cropworm - capillaria spp.
Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys - what virus?
Adenovirus Type II
What age group does HE of turkeys affect?
4-12 weeks old
Subclinical form of HE has what result?
Enlarged, mottled spleen
1st sign often sudden deaths
Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys
Blood adhered to feathers next to vent
HE of turkeys
small intestine distended filled with bloody fluid with thin layer of fibrin on mucosa.
HE of turkeys
Intranuclear inclusion bodies in spleen and intestine.
HE of turkeys
Marbled spleen disease in pheasants
Hemorrhagic enteritis
Fowl pox has a high mortality in what birds?
Canaries and blue-fronted amazons
cannibalism and mosquito vector are two important transmission mechanisims of this disease.
fowl pox
T or F
Recovery from Fowl Pox results in long-term immunity.
What are the two forms of pox virus?
Wet (diptheritic) and cutaneous
slightly elevated, white to opaque plaques & nodules
• nodules often coalesce to form caseous diphtheritic
• lesions extend from the infraorbital sinuses to the
pharynx and larynx
– often involve the esophagus
Fowl pox, diptheritic form
characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic
inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) in proliferative epithelium
Fowl pox
AKA necrotic enteritis (NE)
Clostridium Perfringens Type A or C
What toxins do Clostridium Perfringens produce?
Type A & C produce alpha toxin
Type C produces beta toxin
Birds are often found dead without previous signs.
Clostridium enteritis
hemorrhage is NOT a prominant feature of this intestinal disease that causes gas distension of the jej and ileum.
Clostridium perfringens
jej and ileum mucosal surface covered by a yellow-tan pseudomembrane
Clostridium perfringens
What are the four diseases caused by Salmonella?
1. Pullorum disease
2. Fowl typhoid
3. Paratyphoid
4. Arizonosis
Bacillary white diarrhea
Pallorum disease
Pullorum disease caused by:
Salmonella enterica ss. enterica serovar Pullorum
blindness caused by uveitis with intraocular exudate
Pullorum disease
Fowl typhoid?
older birds have hepatosplenomegaly and bile-stained liver
Fowl typhoid
Which salmonella infections involve a motile species?
Paratyphoid (usually typhimurium) and Arizonosis
Which salmonella infections are zoonotic?
Paratyphoid and Arizonosis
Which salmonella infections are reportable?
Paratyphoid and pullorum disease
Where do paratyphoid organisms frequently colonoize?
gall bladder
profuse diarrhea with passing of vents
fowl typhoid caused by:
S. gallinarum
lesions suggest a septicemia in this salmonella infection
Arizonosis caused by:
Salmonella arizonae
Arizonosis is most common in which poultry?
T or F
Arizonosis is rarely seen in adults.
presumptive diagnosis of arizonosis can be based on a
combination of the following in poults
1. high mortality
2. neurologic signs
3. blindness