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24 Cards in this Set

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Define migration

Migration may be defined as a process when a person moves to a foreigner country permanently and stays for at least a year.

Migration may be classified or divided into

International & National


Inter-rural & Rural-urban


Forced & Voluntary

Ravenstein's laws / Migrations laws

-Most migrants proceed over a short distance


-Migration occurs in a series of steps or stages


-As well as movement to large cities, there is movement away from them (dispersal)


-Urban populations migrate less than rural populations


-Women are more migratory than men over short distance


-Migration increases with advances in technology



Lee's push and pull migration model


Intervening obstacles:


-Disadvantages (pull factors): Political & cultural differences,


-Advantages (push factors): Work & education


-Unimportant factors: Distance

Gravity model

Based upon the idea that as the importance of one or both of the location increases, there will also be an increase in movement between them. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less (distance decay).

The Zelinsky Model of Mobility Transition
The Zelinsky Model of Mobility Transition

Transition claims that the type of migration that occurs within a country depends on how developed it is or what type of society it is.

Hierarchical stepwise movement


Shows types of stepped migratory movement originating from rural areas. It shows the increasing urbanization and industrialization through the progressive movement from rural areas, to small towns, to regional center, to national metropolis

Varied stepwise movement


Shows the exceptions in the hierarchical model, that movement appears (because of push and pull factors) in various ways.



Population density


Population distribution

Distribution: Refers to the way which people are spread out the earth's surface.


Density: Describes the number of people living in a given area (Number of people in an area or country/Size of area or country)


Demographic transition model: Is a evolution model which shows changes in total population as a results of changes in the CBR and CDR as a society goes through the process of modernization.


1: High fluctuation


2: Early expansion. Death rate falls, raid pop growth


3: Late expansion. Both birth and death rates falls, pop grows


4: Low fluctuation: Both birth and death rates remains low. Pop remains high.

Population momentum

The tendency for population to grow despite a fall in birth rate or fertility levels. Because of a high concentration of people in prechild-bearing and child-bearing years.



PMF = CBR/1000 x Life expectancy

Doubling time

Is the length of time it takes for a population to double in size, assuming the natural growth rate remains constant.
DT = Life Expectancy (70) / NC

Natural Change

Shows the position in the Demographic Transition Model.


NC = CBR - CDR


E.g. (46/1000) - (16/1000) x 100 = 3.0%

Dependency Ratios



YDP = YDP / EAP x 100


EDP = EDP / EAP x 100


TDP = YDP + EDP / EAP x 100





1. Concave pyramid: Expansive -> Stationary


2. Convex pyramid: Constructive -> Regressive

Population Projection

The maximum population exception in the future

3 Types of densities

Population density: Total pop/Total area


Physiologic density: Total pop/Cultivableland


Agricultural density: Rural pop/Cultivableland

The haggettian model:


Describes the natural change.
Increase: CBR, immigration


Decrease: CDR, emigration

Indicators of mortality

CDR: Numbers of deaths


MMR: Women who dies pregnant or complication at childbirth


L.E: Expected to live


CMR: Deaths of infants and children under 5


ASDR: Death in specific age group


ASSDR: Death in specific age and sex group

Indicators of fertility

CBR: Number of births


NRR: Daughters that passes through the age-specific fertility and mortality rates


GRR: Daughters 45 years and the age-specific fertility rate


ASFR: Age of children to the age of women


TFR: Children born in a women's lifetime


RLF: Amount of daughters to replace herself

Lorenz curve:


Shows inequalities in distributions.


Diagonal line: Perfect even distribution


Concave/convex curve: The degree of concentration of population within the various continents. The greater the slope, the greater the inequality of population distribution

Population policies

May be defined as an institutional official decision to deduce and reduce population growth. Implemented to solve a problem related to CBR.

Types of population policies

1. Anti-natalism (China)


2. Pro-natalism (Germany)

Types of population problems

Explosion, implosion