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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Common features of Dr. Luke Gottwald's style?

- tense, excited verses

- catchy/anthem choruses

- acoustic instruments & 80 sythn

- resemble house mix

Who are some artists Ron Fair produced?

Christina Aguilera, M.J. Blige, Fergie, Slayer

What is the major limit to our understanding of music of Black communities?

Until 1890s

- black music oral

- suppressed by slave owners

- national with "Minstrelsy"

What is a diaspora?

Forced dispersion of people into hostile cultural surroundings

What is the difference between melody & accompaniment?

- Melody: composition that carries identity, humming part

- Accompaniment: everything else, instruments, support

How do accompaniments in parlor songs typically differ from those in folk songs?

- Parlor: like Europe, simple, repeating chords

- Folk: usually none, instruments play melody

What are two typical features of folk music?

- flexible, hard to predict tempo same tune as singer

- changing lyrics, tragic or joke

What is a typical relationship between a sung melody and the text collected?

singers sing melody "straight" no need to change

How does post-civil war Minstrelsy differ from earlier music of Thomas Rice?

- Thomas Rice: parody, division btwn black & whites

- Post-Civil War: simpler form of cultural insult

What aspects of "Oh Susannah!" are influenced by minstrelsy?

- banjo (African instrument)

- melody is plain & seems "shouty" with absurd lyrics

What is timbre?

sound quality that isn't loudness or pitch

- bright, dull, grainy, etc.

What's the difference between rhythm and a beat?

- rhythm: way notes are proportioned in time

- beat: repetitive rhythm

What motivated Herder to study folk music?

Herder attracted to ancient pre-Christian roots, thought he can discover traditions unspoiled by civilization

How is "Jeannie with the Light Brown Hair" a commodification of Irish identity?

sounding "pastoral"

What media technologies are involved in popularization of Stephen Foster's music?

sheet music for the piano

What's wrong with the traditional view that the U.S. is a melting pot?

- melting pot means mixture of culture that doesn't privilege one voice over another

- ignores "assimilation" immigrants subordinate values to single dominant culture

What do Zora Neale Hurston account for black cultural expression being "split" between two identities?

- being invisible & being intensely scrutinized

When did the Bell brothers & Edison begin marketing phonograph players and recordings?


How does electric recording affect singers & their performance styles in the late 1920s?

allows more sensitive recording, can sing quietly and with more range

What main features define early "blues" singing?


- rhythms that place emphasize on weak notes or between

How are "Piedmont" and "Delta" guitar styles different?

- Piedmont: finger picking

- Delta: rhythmic structure

Whom did Ma Rainey strongly influence?

Bessie Smith, Ida Cox, Clara Smith

What are some of Bessie Smith's distinctive qualities as a 'blues' singer?

- extraordinary breath control

- clear diction

- ability to improvise

Why is the term "jazz" troublesome?

- refers to virtually any style of music innovated by early 20th century African Americans

- pigeon holed African American composers & performer

How did "race records" contribute to Black identity in the U.S.?

- raised Black's awareness of community identity and a sense of common experience

What happens to jazz in the 1920s?

- popularized & internationalized

- bigger band

- economic boom: associated as entertainment for wealthy

Who was Louis Armstrong's mentor?

Joe "King" Oliver

Name two features that distinguish Kansas City Swing from earlier New Orleans styles

- more instruments

- boogie-woogie bass lines

What main feature distinguished a typical jazz band in 1925 from one in 1935?

1920's was smaller

Define blue-note, syncopation, turn-around, improvisation, arrangement & swing

- blue-note: between happy/major third & sad minor third

- syncopation: emphasis on weak/between beat

- turn-around: intense musical sound after phrase

- improvisation: spontaneous invention

- arrangement: supporting existing melody with accompaniments

- swing: level of coordination that creates rhythmic tilt

What are the major instrument categories in a typical big band, and what are they good for?

- Rhythm: drum, bass, guitar, piano; keep the beat

- Wind: saxophones; choir-like

- Brass: trumpets & trombones; sharp attacks & interjections

How do Alain Locke's early view of jazz & blues differ from those of Langston Hughes?

- Locke: look down on Black music, see it as white entertainment

- Hughes: praise jazz

How did Benny Goodman help to popularize swing?

"Let's Dance" radio show 1935

Why was Benny Goodman's 1938 concert at Carnegie Hall important in the history of jazz and swing?

signaled coming of age of swing & jazz as high-art

What marks 1935 as beginning of the swing era (three main points)?

- Count Basie made Bennie Moten's Kansas City Swing

- Benny Goodman introduce swing to national audience

- Fed Astaire's "Top Hat" made more accessible and romantic

Who were some major Tin Pan Alley songwriters?

Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, George Gershwin

Whose band was a breakthrough act for Frank Sinatra?

Tommy Dorsey band

Who were some of the major bandleaders in the swing era?

Bennie Moten, Fletcher Henderson, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Tommy Dorsey, Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman

Where did the "Charleston" originate?

black communities in Charleston, South Carolina

Diagram a stop-time blues form and understand the relationships between the sections? How many lines in each section? Where do lines contrast or stay the same?


Who was Lead Belly & relationship to John Lomax?

- American Folk & Blues musician

- Lomax acted as a teacher

John Lomax's search for authenticity from Cobain?

- Lomax wanted to trace African American culture

- Cobain wanted personal authenticity

What factors in 1890-1910 contributed to an emphasis on Black individualism?

disenfranchisement, Jim Crow laes & strict segregation

What was the primary mode of dissemination for popular blues in 1910s?

Sheet Music

How does the early recording industry of 1920s influence the performing choices of Ma Rainey & Bessie Smith?

- they would chose 12-bar

- want more standard forms of style

Name four instrumentalists important in early New Orleans styles & name their instruments

- Jelly Morton: pianist

- Jack Laine: drummer

- Charles Bolden: Trumpet

- Sidney Bechet: Clarinet

How did upper-middle-class black women regard blues in late 19th & 20th?

saw it as

What cultural purposes does call-and-response discourse serve?

- construct an ideal participatory community

Which work did Louis Armstrong reference in 1929 recording of "Ain't Misbehavin'"?

Rhapsody in Blue - George Gershwin

Why is the homogeneity of 32-bar form both a "boon and a challenge"?

encourages composer to explore limits of genre

What are some examples of famous Tin-Pan Alley songs that were meant to represent Blackness in some way?

"Alexander's Ragtime Band"


Which two bands and singers were involved in a "battle" at the Savoy Ballroom around midnight after Goodman & Hampton's Carnegie concert?

- Chick Webb & Count Bassie

- Ella Fitzgerald & Billie Holiday

What are a few of the "array of conflicting interpretations" offered about the swing dance craze in Stowe 1998?

- moral threat

- conformism:loss of social values

- voice of modern youth

- neurotic & erotic

- real music compared to idealistic romantic tin pan alley

What was the nature of Arthur Cremin's experiment and Ellington's critique?

- Placed men & women in room and played music jazz made them rowdy

- not a real experiment, no constant

How did the popular reception of swing evolve in late 1930's?

People stopped being rowdy and became good listeners

What stage name did rural blues musician McKinley take in Chicago? Why did he switch from acoustic to electric guitar?

- Muddy Waters

- need amplified instrument to be heard above noise

What two technological development led to growth in popularity of working-class Blues and Country?

record & magnetic recording tape

What unique personality traits separated Hank Williams from his male country & western contemporaries to help popularize him?

- sophisticated exploration of black musical styles

- emotional solo

What was Bill Haley's goal in forming a Western Swing band?

- symbol of teenage rebellion & desire

- appeal to both black & white audience

Which artist did Hughes compare to "musical version of electric welders"?

Memphis Minnie

How have traditional blues "experts" valued "Vaudeville" and "Down-home" blues differently?

- Down-home: valued & authentic

- Vaudeville: not

What are five elements of 1950s rock and roll & which four are shared by Rhythm & Blues?

- swing/shuffle rhythm

- back beat

- small ensemble

- blues inspired singing

- television ready personalities

Whose footstep did Hank William follow?

Rufus Payne

What would you describe as the catalyst/motivation for the "second" migration

Movement of blacks from rural America into urban areas