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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What causes secretin release

stimulated by acid in the duodenum


decreases gastric secretion and motility

is released from the duodenum

What causes the release of Cholecystokinin (CCK)

stimulated by fat and protein in the duodenum


decreases gastric secretion and motility

stimulates secretion from the pancreas

is released from the duodenum into the blood

What is secreted into the lumen of the GI tract at the duodenum?


What is secreted into the lumen of the stomach


Slow waves in gastrointestinal smooth muscle are (2)

more likely to reach threshold for action potentials if acetylcholine is present

caused by Pacemaker cells

Contraction of circular muscle

propulsive segment: during peristalsis and segmenting movements

Contraction of longitudinal segment

receiving segment: during peristalsis and segmenting movements

Secondary peristalsis in the esophagus

is caused by food in the esophagus

The depolarizing phase of a gastric action potential (2)

closes the pyloric sphincter

pushes some chyme through the pyloric sphincter

Amino acids in the liver are (2)

converted into plasma proteins

converted into glucose

Secretion from the pancreas:

contains lipase

is stimulated by food in the intestine

is stimulated by cholecystokinin (CCK)

contains trypsinogen

is increased during all 3 phases

What is a micelle made up of?

bile salts

free fatty acids


fat soluble vitamins A, D, and E

Bile salts (5)
have a lipophilic end derived from cholesterol

have a lipophilic end that is inserted into fat droplets

are involed in the emulsification of fat

have a lipophobic end which is a string of amino acids

prevent the reformation of large fat droplets

Which of the following is not a form of motility


Which of the following are forms of motility (3)


migrating motor complex


Breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates

only monosaccharides are absorbed

breakdown of polysaccharides begins in the mouth

the absorption of glucose has a transport maximum

epithelial disaccharidase breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides

nothing happens in the stomach

Breakdown and absorption of lipids

monoglycerides can be absorbed

breakdown of lipids involves the cleavage of fatty acids from triglycerides

free fatty acids are absorbed from micelles

lingual lipase starts breakdown

pancreatic lipase does most of the breakdown

Breakdown and absorption of proteins

chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase

pepsinogen is cleaved by pepsin to form pepsin

trypsinogen is cleaved by trypsin to form trypsin

trypsinogen is secreted from the pancreas

amino acids, tripeptides, and dipeptides are all absorbed through secondary active transport

What stimulates the release of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

stimulated by glucose in the duodenum

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

increase GIP causes increased insulin secretion

inhibits gastric motility and secretion

Secretin, CCK, and GIP all come from

the small intestine

Effectors in the gastrointestinal system include

exocrine cells

Serous cells

secrete salivary amylase

Plateau phase of the gastric action potential

causes a contraction that grinds chyme against the closed pyloric sphincter

When is gastric secretion increased

cephalic phase

gastric phase


secreted into the duodenum

contains HCO3

stored and concentrated in the gall bladder

contains bilirubin

The migrating motor complex

begins in the antrum of the stomach

occurs during the postabsorptive state

removes undigested debris

helps to prevent bacterial growth


stimulates gastric secretion and motility

is involved in the gastroileal reflex

comes from the stomach

stimulus for secretion is protein in the stomach

stimulates the stomach to digest food


release is increased by contraction of myoepithelial cells

contains HCO3 released by duct cells

Saliva contains




What is released by chief cells?


How is pepsinogen converted to pepsin

by pepsin

by HCl

What causes sweating?

release of acetylcholine at sweat glands

Facilitated diffusion

there may be competition between the transport of different substances that bind to the same carrier

there is a transport maximum

During an action potential

the membrane potential briefly becomes positive

opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels cause the rising phase (rapid depolarization)

An excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP)

moves the membrane potential toward threshold

is a grade potential

can be summated together with other epsp's by both spatial and temporal summation

can be caused by closing a K+ channel

The sympathetic nervous system

always releases acetylcholine from the preganglionic axon which acts on nicotinic receptors on the postganglionic neuron

The stretch reflex

when initiated the Ia sensory afferent stimulates an inhibitory interneuron innervating the a-Mn antagonist

Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle

contraction ends when calcium is actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

calcium binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift exposing the myosin binding sites on actin

summation of the contractions occurs when there are a high frequency of action potentials in the a-Mn

What plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle?


Contraction is _______ filament regulated in skeletal muscle


Contraction is _______ filament regulated in smooth muscle


During normal inspiration

pleural pressure is becoming more negative

alveolar pressure is negative

The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve

shows that it is easier for O2 to bind to Hb when it is shifted to the left

shows that as one O2 is removed for Hb, the next O2 molecule is more easily removed from Hb

in the steep region of the curve large amounts of oxygen are removed from Hb as the PO2 decreases

The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve shifts to the right

in the presence of high CO2 concentration

near active tissue

when there are high levels of H+ present

The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve shifts to the left

in the lungs

making it easier for O2 to bind to Hb

when there are low levels of H+ present

Starling forces

capillary colloid osmotic pressure is a force opposing filtration in each capillary

Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure is a force opposing filtration

capillary colloid osmotic pressure increases significantly along a glomerular capillary but not a normal capillary

What stimulates ADH release?

stimulated by high extracellular fluid osmolarity

stimulated by low extracellular fluid volume

Functions of ADH

acts to bring the concentration of the filtrate in the collecting duct to equilibrium with the concentration of the interstitial fluid of the inner medulla

causes the formation of cAMP

has its effects on the distal tubule and collecting duct

Respiratory alkalosis

may be compensated for by the kidney secreting less H+

may be compensated for by the kidneys decreasing HCO3- reabsorption

Respiratory acidosis

may be compensated for by the kidneys increasing HCO3 reabsorption

may be compensated for by the kidneys increasing H+ secretion

Metabolic alkalosis

may be caused by vomiting

can be compensated for by decreased ventilation

Metabolic acidosis

can be caused by diarrhea

may be compensated for by increased ventilation

would always be associated with low HCO3-

Spatial summation

is caused by action potentials arriving at two different synapses that are close enough together so that the post-synaptic potentials summate

What determines the length of the depolarization phase of an action potential?

L-type calcium channels opening

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

between sertoli cells

Concentrating urine requires

reabsorption of H2O from the collecting duct

concentrated interstitial fluid in the inner medulla of the kidney

the presence of ADH

What type of receptor does Aldosterone bind to?


What cell type secretes inhibin?

Sertoli cells

How does glucose move across the luminal membrane of proximal tubule cells in the kidney?

Secondary active transport

A cell has a membrane potential of -80 mV, this may be explained by

the cell has greater than normal permeability to K+

the cell has less than normal permeability to Na+

The gamma (y)-motor neuron:

maintains stretch on the stretch receptor when the muscle shortens


may be treated with a B2 receptor agonist

ADH release is stimulated by

low extracellular fluid volume

The maximum concentration the filtrate can reach is the concentration of

the interstitial fluid of the inner medulla

Primordial follicles contain

granulosa cells, but not theca cells

The active form of vitamin D3

acts to increase plasma levels of both calcium and phosphate

Which hormone is released into the primary plexus?


During an action potential

the membrane potential briefly becomes positive

During the cross-bridge cycle in skeletal muscle:

actin and myosin unbind when ATP binds to the S1 region of the myosin head

In the proximal tubule

the concentration of glucose is decreasing

the majority of the filtered Na+ is reabsorbed

Aldosterone decreases levels of _____ in the plasma


Countercurrent exchange

involves the movement of Na+, Cl-, and H2O between the limbs of the vasa recta

What type of reaction is the production of ketone bodies by the liver?

post-abosrptive state reaction

The hypophyseal portal vessel carries which hormone?


During pregnancy prolactin is stimulated by estrogen from the



inhibits osteoclasts

decreases plasma phosphate

is produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland

Testosterone inhibits the release of


The primary oocyte has ____ doubled chromosomes


Estrogen release from the secondary follicles causes

a decrease in FSH release