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82 Cards in this Set

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What causes secretin release

stimulated by acid in the duodenum

Secretin

decreases gastric secretion and motility


is released from the duodenum

What causes the release of Cholecystokinin (CCK)

stimulated by fat and protein in the duodenum

Cholecystokinin

decreases gastric secretion and motility


stimulates secretion from the pancreas


is released from the duodenum into the blood



What is secreted into the lumen of the GI tract at the duodenum?

bile

What is secreted into the lumen of the stomach

pepsinogen

Slow waves in gastrointestinal smooth muscle are (2)

more likely to reach threshold for action potentials if acetylcholine is present


caused by Pacemaker cells



Contraction of circular muscle

propulsive segment: during peristalsis and segmenting movements

Contraction of longitudinal segment

receiving segment: during peristalsis and segmenting movements

Secondary peristalsis in the esophagus

is caused by food in the esophagus

The depolarizing phase of a gastric action potential (2)

closes the pyloric sphincter


pushes some chyme through the pyloric sphincter

Amino acids in the liver are (2)

converted into plasma proteins


converted into glucose

Secretion from the pancreas:

contains lipase


is stimulated by food in the intestine


is stimulated by cholecystokinin (CCK)


contains trypsinogen


is increased during all 3 phases

What is a micelle made up of?

bile salts


free fatty acids


cholesterol


fat soluble vitamins A, D, and E

Bile salts (5)
have a lipophilic end derived from cholesterol

have a lipophilic end that is inserted into fat droplets


are involed in the emulsification of fat


have a lipophobic end which is a string of amino acids


prevent the reformation of large fat droplets

Which of the following is not a form of motility

haustrations

Which of the following are forms of motility (3)

segmentation


migrating motor complex


peristalsis

Breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates

only monosaccharides are absorbed


breakdown of polysaccharides begins in the mouth


the absorption of glucose has a transport maximum


epithelial disaccharidase breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides


nothing happens in the stomach

Breakdown and absorption of lipids

monoglycerides can be absorbed


breakdown of lipids involves the cleavage of fatty acids from triglycerides


free fatty acids are absorbed from micelles


lingual lipase starts breakdown


pancreatic lipase does most of the breakdown



Breakdown and absorption of proteins

chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase


pepsinogen is cleaved by pepsin to form pepsin


trypsinogen is cleaved by trypsin to form trypsin


trypsinogen is secreted from the pancreas


amino acids, tripeptides, and dipeptides are all absorbed through secondary active transport

What stimulates the release of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

stimulated by glucose in the duodenum

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

increase GIP causes increased insulin secretion


inhibits gastric motility and secretion



Secretin, CCK, and GIP all come from

the small intestine

Effectors in the gastrointestinal system include

exocrine cells

Serous cells

secrete salivary amylase

Plateau phase of the gastric action potential

causes a contraction that grinds chyme against the closed pyloric sphincter

When is gastric secretion increased

cephalic phase


gastric phase

Bile

secreted into the duodenum


contains HCO3


stored and concentrated in the gall bladder


contains bilirubin

The migrating motor complex

begins in the antrum of the stomach


occurs during the postabsorptive state


removes undigested debris


helps to prevent bacterial growth

Gastrin

stimulates gastric secretion and motility


is involved in the gastroileal reflex


comes from the stomach


stimulus for secretion is protein in the stomach


stimulates the stomach to digest food

Saliva

release is increased by contraction of myoepithelial cells


contains HCO3 released by duct cells



Saliva contains

amylase


lipase


HCO3

What is released by chief cells?

Pepsinogen

How is pepsinogen converted to pepsin

by pepsin


by HCl

What causes sweating?

release of acetylcholine at sweat glands

Facilitated diffusion

there may be competition between the transport of different substances that bind to the same carrier


there is a transport maximum

During an action potential

the membrane potential briefly becomes positive


opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels cause the rising phase (rapid depolarization)

An excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP)

moves the membrane potential toward threshold


is a grade potential


can be summated together with other epsp's by both spatial and temporal summation


can be caused by closing a K+ channel

The sympathetic nervous system

always releases acetylcholine from the preganglionic axon which acts on nicotinic receptors on the postganglionic neuron





The stretch reflex

when initiated the Ia sensory afferent stimulates an inhibitory interneuron innervating the a-Mn antagonist



Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle

contraction ends when calcium is actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum


calcium binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift exposing the myosin binding sites on actin


summation of the contractions occurs when there are a high frequency of action potentials in the a-Mn

What plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle?

calmodulin

Contraction is _______ filament regulated in skeletal muscle

thin

Contraction is _______ filament regulated in smooth muscle

thick

During normal inspiration

pleural pressure is becoming more negative


alveolar pressure is negative

The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve

shows that it is easier for O2 to bind to Hb when it is shifted to the left


shows that as one O2 is removed for Hb, the next O2 molecule is more easily removed from Hb


in the steep region of the curve large amounts of oxygen are removed from Hb as the PO2 decreases

The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve shifts to the right

in the presence of high CO2 concentration


near active tissue


when there are high levels of H+ present



The oxygen-Hb equilibrium curve shifts to the left

in the lungs


making it easier for O2 to bind to Hb


when there are low levels of H+ present

Starling forces

capillary colloid osmotic pressure is a force opposing filtration in each capillary


Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure is a force opposing filtration


capillary colloid osmotic pressure increases significantly along a glomerular capillary but not a normal capillary



What stimulates ADH release?

stimulated by high extracellular fluid osmolarity


stimulated by low extracellular fluid volume



Functions of ADH

acts to bring the concentration of the filtrate in the collecting duct to equilibrium with the concentration of the interstitial fluid of the inner medulla


causes the formation of cAMP


has its effects on the distal tubule and collecting duct

Respiratory alkalosis

may be compensated for by the kidney secreting less H+


may be compensated for by the kidneys decreasing HCO3- reabsorption

Respiratory acidosis

may be compensated for by the kidneys increasing HCO3 reabsorption


may be compensated for by the kidneys increasing H+ secretion



Metabolic alkalosis

may be caused by vomiting


can be compensated for by decreased ventilation

Metabolic acidosis

can be caused by diarrhea


may be compensated for by increased ventilation


would always be associated with low HCO3-

Spatial summation

is caused by action potentials arriving at two different synapses that are close enough together so that the post-synaptic potentials summate

What determines the length of the depolarization phase of an action potential?

L-type calcium channels opening

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

between sertoli cells

Concentrating urine requires

reabsorption of H2O from the collecting duct


concentrated interstitial fluid in the inner medulla of the kidney


the presence of ADH

What type of receptor does Aldosterone bind to?

intracellular

What cell type secretes inhibin?

Sertoli cells

How does glucose move across the luminal membrane of proximal tubule cells in the kidney?

Secondary active transport

A cell has a membrane potential of -80 mV, this may be explained by

the cell has greater than normal permeability to K+


the cell has less than normal permeability to Na+

The gamma (y)-motor neuron:

maintains stretch on the stretch receptor when the muscle shortens

Asthma

may be treated with a B2 receptor agonist



ADH release is stimulated by

low extracellular fluid volume

The maximum concentration the filtrate can reach is the concentration of

the interstitial fluid of the inner medulla

Primordial follicles contain

granulosa cells, but not theca cells

The active form of vitamin D3

acts to increase plasma levels of both calcium and phosphate

Which hormone is released into the primary plexus?

somatostatin

During an action potential

the membrane potential briefly becomes positive

During the cross-bridge cycle in skeletal muscle:

actin and myosin unbind when ATP binds to the S1 region of the myosin head

In the proximal tubule

the concentration of glucose is decreasing


the majority of the filtered Na+ is reabsorbed

Aldosterone decreases levels of _____ in the plasma

K+

Countercurrent exchange

involves the movement of Na+, Cl-, and H2O between the limbs of the vasa recta

What type of reaction is the production of ketone bodies by the liver?

post-abosrptive state reaction

The hypophyseal portal vessel carries which hormone?

TRH

During pregnancy prolactin is stimulated by estrogen from the

placenta

Calcitonin

inhibits osteoclasts


decreases plasma phosphate


is produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland

Testosterone inhibits the release of

FSH

The primary oocyte has ____ doubled chromosomes

46

Estrogen release from the secondary follicles causes

a decrease in FSH release