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49 Cards in this Set

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Internal respiration

Oxidative phosphorylation (Did this already)
External respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere and body tissues
External Respiration (4)
-Pulmonary ventilation
-Exchange between lungs and blood
-Transportation in blood
-Exchange between blood and body tissues
Two types of exchanges
Structures of the Conducting Zone (3)
-Secondary bronchi
+Right side—3 (to 3 lobes of right lung)
+Left side—2 (to 2 lobes of left lung)
Structures of the Respiratory Zone (4)
-Respiratory bronchioles
-Alveolar ducts
-Alveolar sacs
Function of the Respiratory Zone (2)
-Exchange of gases between air and blood
-Mechanism is by diffusion
Alveoli (3)
-Alveoli = site of gas exchange
-300 million alveoli in the lungs (tennis court size)
-Rich blood supply—capillaries form sheet over alveoli
What is it?
How many?
What does it have?
Alveoli (3) - Two types
-Type I alveolar cells—make up wall of alveoli
+Single layer epithelial cells
-Type II alveolar cells—secrete surfactant
-Alveolar macrophages
Role of Pressure in Pulmonary Ventilation (2)
-Air moves in and out of lungs by bulk flow
-Pressure gradient drives flow
+Air moves from high to low pressure
+Inspiration—pressure in lungs less than atmosphere
+Expiration—pressure in lungs greater than atmosphere
Pulmonary Pressures (4)
-Atmospheric pressure = Patm
-Intra-alveolar pressure = Palv
+Pressure of air in alveoli
-Intrapleural pressure = Pip
+Pressure inside pleural sac
-Transpulmonary pressure = Palv – Pip
+Distending pressure across the lung wall
Atmospheric Pressure (4)
-760 mm Hg at sea level
-Decreases as altitude increases
-Increases under water
-Other lung pressures given relative to atmospheric (set Patm = 0 mm Hg)
the collapse of one or both lungs, caused by accumulation of gas or air in the pleural cavity, or resulting from injury or disease.
Mechanics of Breathing (2)
-Movement of air in and out of lungs due to pressure gradients
-Mechanics of breathing describes mechanisms for creating pressure gradients
Forces for Air Flow (2)
-Boyle’s Law: pressure is inversely related to volume
-Thus, can change alveolar pressure by changing its volume
Muscles of Respiration (2)
-Inspiratory muscles increase volume of thoracic cavity
+External intercostals
-Expiratory muscles decrease volume of thoracic cavity
+Internal intercostals
+Abdominal muscles
To Overcome Surface Tension (2)
-Surfactant secreted from type II cells
+Surfactant = detergent that decreases surface tension
-Surfactant increases lung compliance
+Makes inspiration easier
spirometer - an instrument that measures the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs (the amount of inhaled and exhaled air).
Diffusion of Gases (2)
-Partial pressures of gases
-Solubility of gases in liquids
Partial Pressure of Gases: Ideal Gas Law (3)
Pressure of gas depends on temperature, number of gas molecules, and volume
PV = nRT
P = nRT/V
Gas Mixtures (2)
-Many gases are mixtures of different molecules
-Partial pressure of a gas = proportion of pressure of entire gas that is due to presence of the individual gas
Gas Mixtures (2)
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + … Pn
-Partial pressure of a gas depends on
+Fractional concentration of the gas
Gas Composition of Air
-Composition of air
+79% Nitrogen
+21% Oxygen
+Trace amounts carbon dioxide, helium, argon, etc.
+Water can be a factor depending on humidity
Gas Composition of Air
- Pair = 760 mm Hg = PN2 + PO2
+ PN2 = 0.79 x 760 mm Hg = 600 mm Hg
+ PO2 = 0.21 x 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg
+ Air is only 0.03% carbon dioxide
= PCO2 = 0.0003 x 760 mm Hg = 0.23 mm Hg
Composition of Air at 100% Humidity
Pair = 760 mm Hg = PN2 + PO2+ PH2O
PN2 = 0.741 x 760 mm Hg = 563 mm Hg
PO2 = 0.196 x 760 mm Hg = 149 mm Hg
PH2O = 0.062 x 760 mm Hg = 47 mm Hg
PCO2 = 0.00027 x 760 mm Hg = 0.21 mm Hg
Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide (2)
-Gas exchange in the lungs
-Gas exchange in respiring tissue
Diffusion of Gases (3)
-Gases diffuse down pressure gradients
+High pressure  low pressure
-In gas mixtures, gases diffuse down partial pressure gradients
+High partial pressure  low partial pressure
-A particular gas diffuses down its own partial pressure gradient
+Presence of other gases irrelevant
Rate of Diffusion in Lungs
-Diffusion between alveoli and blood is rapid
+Small diffusion barrier
+Large surface area
Gas Exchange in Respiring Tissue (5)
-Gases diffuse down partial pressure gradients
-PO2 cells  40 mm Hg ;
-PO2 systemic arteries =100 mmHg
+Oxygen diffuses from blood to cells
+PO2 systemic veins = 40 mm Hg
-PCO2 cells  46 mm Hg ;
-PCO2 systemic arteries = 40 mmHg
+Carbon dioxide diffuses from cells to blood
+PCO2 systemic veins = 46 mm Hg
Mixed Venous Blood
-Actual amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is exchanged in any given vascular bed depends on metabolic activity of tissue
+Greater rate of metabolism  Greater exchange
Matching Ventilation to Need (2)
-Hypoventilation = ventilation does not meet demands
Arterial PO2 decreases
Arterial PCO2 increases
-Hyperventilation = ventilation exceeds demands
Arterial PO2 increases
Arterial PCO2 decreases
Transport of Gases in Blood (2)
-transport in blood
-Carbon dioxide transport in blood
Oxygen Transport in Blood (3)
1. Oxygen transport by hemoglobin
2. The hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve
3. Other factors affecting affinity of hemoglobin for O2
Oxygen Transport in the Blood (3)
-Oxygen not very soluble in plasma
-Thus only 3.0 mL/200 ml arterial blood oxygen dissolved in plasma (1.5%)
-Other 197 mL arterial blood oxygen transported by hemoglobin
Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin
Hb + O2 <--> Hb*O2
Hb = deoxyhemoglobin
Hb*O2 = oxyhemoglobin
Saturation of Hemoglobin (3)
-Hemoglobin can bind up to four oxygen molecules
-Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin follows law of mass action
+More oxygen -> more binds to hemoglobin
-Saturation of hemoglobin is a measure of how much oxygen is bound to hemoglobin
+100% saturation -> all four binding sites on hemoglobin have oxygen bound to them
Effects of O2 Affinity Changes
-Shift right
+Less loading of O2
+And less unloading
-Shift left
+More loading of O2
+And less unloading
Temperature Effects: O2 Saturation
-Higher temperature
+Active tissues
+Shift right
+More O2 unloading in tissues
+More O2 delivery to tissues
pH Effects: O2 Saturation
-Bohr effect
+Lower pH increases O2 unloading
-Active tissues
+Produce more acid pH decreases in tissues
+Decreased pH causes shift right in saturation curve
+More O2 is unloaded to tissues
Effects of CO2 — Carbamino Effect (4)
-Carbon dioxide reacts with hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin
Hb + CO2 <--> HbCO2
-HbCO2 has lower affinity for oxygen than Hb
-Increased metabolic activity -> increases CO2
-oxygen unloading in active tissue
Carbon Monoxide (2)
-Hemoglobin has greater affinity for carbon monoxide (CO) than for oxygen
-Prevents oxygen from binding to hemoglobin
C02 Transport
-C02 transported in blood as dissolved C02 (5.8%), carbaminohemoglobin (7%), & bicarbonate ion, HC03-, (87%)

Chloride Shift (4)
-High C02 levels cause the reaction C02 + H2O  H2C03  H+ + HC03- to shift right
+Results in high H+ & HC03- levels in RBCs
=H+ is buffered by proteins
=HC03- diffuses down concentration & charge gradient into blood causing RBC to become more +
++So Cl- moves into RBC (chloride shift)
Reverse Chloride Shift (3)
-In lungs, C02 + H2O <--> H2C03 <--> H+ + HC03-, moves to left as C02 is breathed out
-Binding of 02 to Hb decreases its affinity for H+
+H+ combines with HC03- & more C02 is formed
-Cl- diffuses down concentration & charge gradient out of RBC (reverse chloride shift)
Blood pH (3)
-Normal blood pH = 7.4 (range 7.35 –7.45)
-Respiratory and renal systems regulate blood pH
-Small changes in pH have large physiological effects
+Alter protein activity
Blood pH (2)
-Acidosis = blood pH < 7.35
+CNS depression
-Alkalosis = blood pH > 7.45
+CNS over-excitation
Respiratory System in Acid–Base Balance (3)
-Hemoglobin functions as a buffer
+Deoxyhemoglobin has greater affinity for H+
+Hb + H+ <- -> HbH
-Bicarbonate ions as a buffer
+HCO3- + H+ <- -> H2CO3 <- -> CO2 + H2O
-Can regulate pH by regulating CO2 levels
Respiratory Acid-Base Disturbances (2)
-Respiratory acidosis
+Caused by increased [CO2]
-Respiratory alkalosis
+Caused by decreased [CO2]
Disorders Caused by High Partial Pressures of Gases (3)
-Total atmospheric pressure increases by an atmosphere for every 10m below sea level

-At depth, increased O2 & N2 can be dangerous to body

-Breathing a high concentration of O2

+O2 toxicity can develop rapidly at >2 atmospheres
Disorders Caused by High Partial Pressures of Gases (3)
-At sea level, nitrogen dissolves slowly in blood
-Under pressure accumulation is much faster
+Nitrogen narcosis resembles alcohol intoxication
-Amount of nitrogen dissolved in blood as diver ascends decreases
+If ascent is too rapid, decompression sickness occurs as bubbles of nitrogen gas form in tissues & enter blood, blocking small blood vessels & producing “bends”