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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Coulomb (C)

Charge flow in one second when a current of 1 Amp flows


Charge flowing per unit time

Potential Difference

Work done or energy transferred per unit charge

Electromotive Force (Emf)

The electrical energy produced per unit charge passing through the source

Potential Difference across terminals

Electrical energy delivered by the source per unit charge


Potential difference across the current divided by the current through it.

Ohm's Law

The potential difference across a metallic conductor is proportional to the current through it, provided physical conditions do not change. Therefore resistance is constant


Resistance per unit length multiplied by cross sectional area.


A material that has zero electrical resistivity at and below a critical temperature. After the temperature is increases above the critical temperature resistance increases.

Rate of energy transfer

Energy per unit time which is also the definition of power

Internal Resistance

The loss of potential difference per unit current in the source when current passes through it.


Light dependent resistor. As light intensity increases, resistance decreases.


As heat increases, resistance decreases. This is because there are more semi-conductor free electrons as temperature increases.


Number of complete cycles per second

Time Period

Time for one complete cycle


Direct current - One value of current/voltage


Alternating current - Which produces a current which creates a waveform

Root Mean Square Value

The root mean square value of an alternating current/voltage is the value of direct current that would give the same heating effect as the alternating current.

The root mean square value is 1/sqrt2 of the peak value.

Y-gain or Y-sensitivity

Potential difference/current per division

Time base

Time per division

Positive temperature coefficient

The resistance of a metal increases as temperature increases

Negative temperature coefficient

The resistance of a semiconductor decreases as temperature increases

Alpha Paricles

Particles that each consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted during alpha radiation


When a particle and an antiparticle meet, they destroy each other and become photons of equal energy


A hadron consisting of 3 anti-quarks


Antiparticles that each have the same rest mass and, if charged, have equal and opposite charge to the corresponding particle.


The antiparticle of a quark

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom


A hadron consisting of 3 quarks

Beta Minus Radiation

Beta minus particles are fast moving electrons emitted by unstable neutron rich nuclei

Beta Plus Radiation

Beta plus particles are fast moving positrons emitted by a unstable proton rich nuclei

De Broglie Hypothesis

Matter particles have a wave like nature characterised by the de Broglie wavelength

De Broglie wavelength

The wavelength of a matter particle = h/p where h is planck's constant and p is the momentum of the particle


Process in which an atom loses energy by photon emission, as a result of an electron inside an atom moving from an outer shell to an inner shell

Electron capture

Process in which an inner shell electron of an atom is captured by the nucleus

Electron volt

Amount of energy equal to 1.6x10^-19J. It is defined as the work done when an electron is moved through a potential difference of 1V

Energy levels

The energy of an electron in an electron shell of an atom


Process by which an atom absorbs energy without becoming ionised as a result of an electron inside an atom moving from an inner shell to an outer shell

Feynmann Diagram

Representations of the interaction between two particles or the decay of a particle


Glow of light from a substance exposed to ultraviolet radiation, causing the atoms to de-excite in stages and emit visible photons in the process

Gamma Radiation

High energy photons emitted by unstable nuclei

Ground State

Lowest energy state of an atom


Particles and antiparticles that can interact via the strong interaction


Atoms of an element with different number of neutrons and the same number of protons


A charged atom


Process of creating ions by exciting electrons in the ground state to remove an electron.


A meson that consists of a strange quark/antiquark and another antiquark/quark


Electrons, muons, neutrinos and their antiparticles are classified as leptons because they cannot interact through the strong interaction. They interact through the weak interaction and, in the case of electrons and positrons, through the electromagnetic interaction

Lepton Number

A lepton number is assigned to every lepton and anti-lepton, on the basis that lepton number is always conserved.


Proton or neutron

Nucleon Number (Mass Number)

Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Pair production

When a gamma photon changes into a particle and an antiparticle, each with half the energy of the photon

Quark Model

A quark can join with an antiquark to form a meson, or with two other quarks to form a baryon

Rest Energy

Energy due to rest mass

Specific Charge

Charge/mass value of a charged particle

Strangeness Number

A strangeness number is assigned to every particle on the basis that strangeness is conserved in the strong interaction, but not in the weak interaction.

Strong Interaction

Interaction between 2 hadrons.

Strong Nuclear Force

Attractive force between nucleons that holds the nucleons in the nucleus

Threshold Frequency

Minimum frequency of light that can cause photoelectric emission

Virtual Photon

Exchange particle of the electromagnetic force; a photon exchanged between two charged particles so they can interact. The virtual photon has zero mass, charged, and infinite range

W boson

Exchange particle of the weak nuclear force; W bosons have a non-zero rest mass and can be charged.

Wave Particle Duality

Matter particles have a wave-like nature, as well as a particle-like nature.

Weak Interaction

Interaction between two leptons

Weak Nuclear Force

Force responsible for beta decau

Work Function of a metal

The minimum amount of energy needed by an electron to escape from a metal's surface.