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41 Cards in this Set

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1. What is an acid
a. Any substance that adds H+ to fluids
2. What is a base?
a. Any substance that removes H+ from body fluids
3. pH=?
a. –log[h+]
4. Henderson hasselbaclh equation?
a. pH=pKa + log [A]/[HA]
5. What are 2 types of acids produced by physiological processes?
a. Volatile
b. Fixed
6. What is a volatile acid?
a. Carbonic acid
b. It can be converted to CO2
c. Handled by lungs
7. What is a fixed acid?
a. Lactic, acetoacetic, B-hydroxybutyric, etc.
b. Handled by kidneys
8. Processes producing H+?
a. Metabolism of carbs/fatty acids/amino acids
b. Anareobic glycolysis: lactic acid
9. Metabolism of aa’s form?
a. Sulfuric acid, hydrocholoric acid
10. What are processes that consume H+
a. Oxidation of lactic acid
b. Lactic acid → glucose
c. Oxidation of ketone bodies
d. Catabolism of amino acids to ammonium
e. Metabolism of citrate
11. What are foods that have acidifying effect?
a. Proteins
b. Cranberries, plums, prunes
i. Benzoic acid
c. Tea and cocoa
i. Oxalic acid
12. Is a western diet acidic or alkaline?
a. Acidic
13. Foods with alkalizing effect?
a. Fruits
i. Citrus, tomatoes
b. Vegetables
14. What is the role of buffers?
a. Minimize the change in pH
b. DO NOT PREVENT CHANGES IN pH
15. What is the pKa buffer value?
a. You want them to be around the pH
b. So pKa is -1 to +1 of desired pH
16. How would you characterize a Buffers capacity to minimize changes in pH?
a. It is limited, can only handle so much
17. What is the major buffering system in the body?
a. Bicarbonate / CO2
b. CO2 + H2O ←→ H2CO3 ←→ HCO3- + H+
c. carbonic anhydrase
18. What do inorganic and organic phosphates do?
a. Excrete acid in the kidney
19. What role does acid/base balance play in bone?
a. Breaking down bone can help absorb free hydrogen ions
b. bone formation: deposition of hydroxyapatite produces H+
c. bone resporption: hydroxyapatite breakdown consumes H+
d. carbonate released from bone can accept H+
21. What is a typical pH?
7.4
22. What is a typical PaCO2 level?
40
23. What is a typical HCO3 concentration?
24
23. What is a typical HCO3 concentration?
a. Takes into account the number of anions that will allow you to buffer excess H+ ions
b. Greater than 2, causes alkalosis
c. Less than 2, causes acidosis
d. Normal range -2 to +2
25. Normal range of Na
a. 135-145
normal range of K
3.5-5
normal range Cl
95-105
28. Normal CO2 content?
a. Equivalent to concentration of bicarb
b. 21-29
c. Will look at bicarb, dissolved CO2, and H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
i. And dissolved and carbonic are really low
1. Meaning you will reflect amount of bicarb
29. In the HH equation what do [A-] and [HA] represent?
a. pH = pK’ + log [A-]/[HA]
b. [A-] ~ bicarbonate
c. [HA] ~ PaCO2 to estimate H2CO3
30. What are the 2 types of acid/base disorders?
a. Simple vs. Mixed
31. What is the difference between acidosis and acidemia
a. Acidosis: relating to disturbance of acid/base balance
b. Acidemia: specifically relating to pH
32. What is a primary acid/base disorder?
a. Disorder is reparatory or metabolic
i. Respiratory: ∆ PaCO2 responsible for ‘abnormal’ pH
ii. Metabolic: ∆ [HCO3-] responsible for ‘abnormal’ pH
33. What is a simple acid/base disturbance?
a. One problem, either metabolic or repiratory
34. What is a mixed(complex) acid/base disturbance
a. Metabolic/respiratory plus something else
35. What is the process of compensation?
a. response to disturbance in acid / base balance in attempts to restore pH to normal
36. Does the body ever try to overcompensate?
a. NO!
if you have respiratory acidosis, what will be the initial change and compensatory response?
increase PCO2
Increase HCO3
in repiratory alkalosis, what will be the initial change and compensatory response?
Decrease PCO2
Decrease HCO3
in metabolic acidosis, what will be the initial change and compensatory response?
decrease in HCO3
Decrease PCO2
in metabolic alkalosis, what will be the initial change and compensatory response?
Increase HCO3
Increase PCO2
38. How do you assess an acid/base disorder (steps to figure out what you have)
a. Asses pH
i. Assess PaCO2 and [HCO3]
1. - pH and PaCO2 move in opposite directions - respiratory
2. - pH and [HCO3-] move in same direction - metabolic
A 45- year old female is admitted to a nursing unit. Her blood gas results are as follows: pH 7.28 PaCO2 55 HCO3- 25
This patient suffers from what condition?
Respiratory acidosis