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23 Cards in this Set

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Explanation in terms of purpose, and goal-directedness. Given to explain a feature of a things as well as why things are happening



Explanation in terms of form. Every living thing is composed of matter and form



aka "New Science"

There is just one kind of 'body' or 'matter' that is divided into particles. Everything in the natural world is made of tiny bodies.

Cartesian (Substance) Dualism

Mind and body are the only distinct substance.

The primary property of mind is thought.

The primary property of body is extension.

Descartes believes in a plurality of both types of substances

(objection: the interaction problem)


There are inherent beliefs.

(Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz)


All our beliefs come from experience

(Locke, Berkeley, Reid, Hume)

Interaction Problem

A distinction between three basic notions: thought, extension, and union (between mind and body). How can the material and immaterial interact?


Denies the existence of a distinction or duality, such as that between matter and mind, or God and the world.


The doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will. Implies that individual human beings have no free will and cannot be held morally responsible for their actions


Things could be no other way than the way they are; an extreme form of determinism


Leibniz, uses monads to explain the world. Monads are everywhere, and there is no extension without monads.


View about the nature of bodies; bodies are collections of mental entities (e.g. Ideas, perceptions...)


The only things that exist are mind/mental substances.


Primary Quality

Produces ideas in our minds that 'resemble' the corresponding qualities in the objects that caused us to have those ideas. These qualities are caused by features that are in the bodies and resemble the actual object, like the 'geometrical properties' of size, shape, and motion.

Secondary Quality

Do not resemble the corresponding qualities of bodies that produce ideas in the mind, and are dependent upon one's perception.

These qualities, unlike primary qualities, hold a certain kind of "power." For example, redness is a secondary quality, and it has the power

A priori judgment

Knowledge that is independent of past experience.

A posteriori judgment

Knowledge that is dependent on experience or empirical evidence.

Analytic judgment

The predicate concept is contained in the subject concept.

i.e. All bodies are extended. All bachelors are unmarried men

Synthetic judgment

Joining two concepts together in order to make a judgment

i.e. All triangles have angles summing to 180 degrees

Cogito Ergo Sum

"I think therefore I am." (Descartes)

This is Descartes' key point for grounding all of his further claims -- that thinking and existing are one and the same.

Objection to "Cogito Ergo Sum?"

Descartes is not entitled to "I" think, only "there is thinking"

This is problematic because Descartes thinks he is entitled to "I" as a fundamental substance that exists in his own right.

Esse Est Percipi

"To be is to be perceived." (Berkeley)

Tabula Rasa

The belief that we are all blank slates, and everything we are is shapes via our experiences (Locke)

**This is the key premise of Empiricism