• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is Galen? Why is he an important figure in medical philosophy?
He was physician to the Gladiators before moving to Rome. He then travelled and studied around Europe. His teaching were regarded and taught as rigid truth for centuries after his death.
Who is Hippocrates and what was he considered?
He was considered the father of Medicine by Plato for his training of medical students. It was debated whether he was actually one living man or a figure to whom we attribute the writings of many people.
List some of Galen Experiments. What did he discover?
The bladder is a magnet.vThe either it attacked urine format he kidneys or blood propelled the urine towards it from there. He proved the because elf vessels in the veins blood and other fluids cannot go the 'opposite' way in the streams.
What disease did Hippocrates discuss? What were his arguments?
The sacred disease, which he argued was not very 'sacred' at all. He thought the disease was caused by a phlegm build up in the brain and was hereditary. Not something that could be cured by the lack of meat eating or sleeping on goatskin.
What is an Aphorism? What format do they usually follow?
An undisputed patterns of disease from past experiences summedup into ‘nuggets’ of knowledge.

Follows an, ‘if,__ then __” Format.

What is Hippocrates best known as being the father of?
The Hippocratic Oath. there was believed to be a Clan of Aesclepiadae where father would teach sons human anatomy and therefore they had to swear in other to be admitted to the clan.
What is a case history?
One specific retelling of the events of being ill for one person over a period of time.
What are the four humours?

What elements to do they over lap with?

Air/Yellow BileFire/Blood
Earth/Black Bile
Air/Yellow Bile



Earth/Black Bile

What did Hippocrates need, as defined by Potter, to consider something disease? (Though it was rarely found in Hippocrates' time.)
1. A precise delimitation of the disease's symptoms, course, prognosisand varieties.

2. A clear conception of the fundamental anatomico-physiologicaldisturbance at its origin.

3. Hypotheses explaining how this fundamentaldisturbance produces each of the observed symptoms.

Who was Thucydides? What did he do and why was it controversial?
He was considered the first accurate historian. He recorded the progression of the Plague of Athens. However he was the only historian of his time to acknowledge that it happened which makes us doubt it's validity as historical event.
What does Plato conclude about the creation and extinction of diseases?
The new diseases can come into effect and old ones die out. He makes this decisions base don a conversation with Plutarch andDiogenianus that since lifestyles change so much so do the risk of diseases they carry.
What is the 'Thucydides index' as defined by Prof. Duffin?
Every time a new disease is discovered in the modern world, the hits on the wikipedia page about Thucydides sky rockets with people trying to figure out what the Plague of Athen's was caused by.
What did Aristotle think about the soul?
He believed there was soul that animated the body. The body and soul must be made formone anther. The body works to keep the soul, not the soul working to animatethe body.
How did Galen Diagnose patients?
He looked for clues about the pines symptoms without always asking directly. This mad whim appear to have superior knowledge when he was really just using signs.
What are the 4 Causes?

Who coined this theory?

Material: what ‘thing’ consists of.

Formal: the Shape of the ‘thing’.

Efficient: theperson who made the ‘thing’.

Final: thepurpose of the ‘thing’.


What is a Sufficient Causes?
I can eat icecream on a Wednesday; therefore Wednesday is a sufficient cause for ice cream.

(If A then B.)

What is a Necessary Cause?
I cannot have icecream unless I work out. Therefore Wednesday is not a good enough reason itsown to have ice cream.

(If No C, then No D.)

What is an Auto-pathography?

Who in this course have we studied from auto-pathograhpies?

An autobiography dealing primarily with the influence of a disease, disability, or psychological disorder on the author's life.

Hildegard and Sontang

Who was Abelard? What did he believe?
He was a theologian who believed that diseases must serve the greater purpose ofgood since they came from God and only good things can come from the ultimategoodness.
Who was Boccaccio? What disease did he witness?
Boccaccio was a writer of the Decameron and was in Europe when the place broke out in Florence.
What is a Quarantine and why was it invented?
It is a period where people were not allowed to enter or leave a city state without expressed written consent form the government in order to prevent the spread of the Plague and given the time of 40 days because thats how long JC went into the desert for.
What did Nohl Study? What were his thoughts on this?
He studied the Plague and blamed it's presence on human sin as a punishment sent by God. This reinforces the concept of disease as a punishment and blaming the patient as the victim since sinning was their vice.
When what you know interferes with you discovering new information.
Someone who is irrelevant to illness. Theycannot have symptoms so they cannot have illness.
Symptoms + Knowledge.
What is the Hippocratic Triangle?
What is Disease as relevant to this course?
The objective physiological/medical theory of the causes of an ailment.An objective idea about the sickness; a metaphysical entity or conceptual idea.
What is Illness as related to this course?
The subjective experience of the ailment to the body as described or experienced by the patient. (Not to be confused with things described by the observer.)
What are the two patient based theories called?
Medical Model and Population theory.
What are are the two Patent Based theories? Why are they different?
MM: Affects individuals

Is considered to be negative

Is discontinuous.

PM: Affects populations

Is considered to be positive

Is continuous.

What are two Caused Based theories called?
Physiological and Ontological.
What are are the two Caused Based theories? Why are they different?
PHYSIOLOGICAL: The cause is from inside the body. Cause as a result of the patient, Ex, smoking. (Patient blaming)

ONTOLOGICAL:The cause is not from the body. The cause exists on it’s own. Ex, toxins (Patient is a victim)

What is Mechanism?
The idea that life can be reduced to physics andchemistry. everything about how well things were designed and how they work. If the human body = a clock. The body follows the rules designed by the clock maker, how well those rules are designed determine show well the clock works.
What is Vitalism?
The opposite of mechanism. The idea that life can never be purelyreduced to science that something will always be missing no matter how far youreduce it to. AKA: the soul.
What is an Epistemological rupture?
The opposite of an epistemological obstacle. When you accept a new pice of evidence as fact it then opens the gateway to other knowledge and a large influx of true information can commence.
Who is Fracastorius? What disease did he study?
An italian poet, mathematician and philosopher. He primarily comment don Syphilis and from his poem about the herder who was afflicted with it, is how it got it's name.
What else was Fracastorius known for?
His study of Contagion. He speculated these categories of transmittance,

(1) Infection by contact only.

(2) Infection by contact or pseudo contact, ex. Bed sheets or scabs orscabies.

(3) Infection by contact, or pseudo contact or transmitted by distance.

What else did Fracastorius touch on?
Fracastorius also spoke about putrefaction and rabies.
Who is Vesalius? what did he do regardless of how distasteful it was?
Vesalius is a Belgian doctor who is referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. He dissected the human body for an increased understanding of human anatomy.
What is a 'sign' comprised of?
Knowledge + a symptom.
What is it called when something that you know is stopping you from accepting a new truth?
An Epistemological Obstacle.
Give alternative names for the soul.
Animating force, Pneuimn, Ormonta, Entia
The ________ is to the body what a battery is to a toy.

Who named this concept.



If no C then no D.

Is this an example of a sufficient cause or a necessary cause?


This is an example of a necessary cause because without D there is no C, C is NECESSARY to acquire D.
What does Harvey define the heart as and (simply put) what does he perceive it's function to be?
To keep the body warm and to distribute the nutrients of food after digestion.

A Pump.

What was the 'uniform' for plague doctors?
Hat, claock, gloves, nose piece (beak looking) used to hold popery to hide the stench of the bodies, googles made of mica.

and a stick for poking possibly dead people.

Who was the first person to map the body?

The second?



What does Sylvatic mean?

Why is it important to this course.

Sylvatic is a scientific term referring to diseases or pathogens affecting only wild (sylvan means forest-dwelling) animals.

There was much confusion in Galenic times about the anatomical differences between humans and animals which accounts for Galen's misperceptions of the human body.

Define Vector in terms of this course.
The means used to spread a disease.

Ex. The plague's largest vector in the beginning was rats as a means of spreading disease until it became airborne. Then coughing and sneezing also became vectors for the disease.

What is an ICONOCLAST?

Can you name one?

A rude ass bitch who attempts to discredit things that as widely supported.

Paracelsus, who laughed at Galen and the 4 Humours. (He was so obnoxious that he got more elements added to the periodic table. #Minerals)

[copper, lead, mercury.]

Paracelsus made up his own system of causes, how many were there and what were they?
5 Causes: The ENS.

Ens Astorium - Stars

Ens Naturale - Nature

Ens Veneni - Poison

Ens Spirituale - Spirit

Ens Dei - God.

“…smoke is only the symptomof the fire, not the fire itself.” A physician must put out the fire not justclear away the smoke.

Whose reading is this from?

What is an 'Arcanum'?
A book that Paracelsus wanted that had all the disease and a corresponding herb that affected the ailment.
Other than a chirpy rude ass little bitch, what was Paracelsus?
An Iconoclast.
"I was ready to suppose thatnothing was at all the way our senses represented them to be. ... I judged that I was as liable to error as any other, and rejected as false allthe reasoning which I had previously accepted as valid demonstration."

Who did this? Why?


As a thought experiment to test actual reality and epistemology.

ALLEGORY: give an example and define.
A narrative story, fictional or non.

The Story of Syphilis.

Who coined the concept of the human body functioning like a clock?
Descartes (discussing intelligent design.)
Define Disease:
An objective medical theory on the causes of an illness/symptoms.
Define Illness:
The subjective experience of being unwell.
Locke and Hobbes are examples of what?
Who used doubt and scepticism to form the main idea's of their philosophical outlook?
What is Cartesian Dualism?
The separation of mind and body as defined by Descartes. The idea that if I cut off an arm the mind remains the same. But if I remove part of the brain the body might cease to function the same.

They are connected but not one in the same.

What is Mechanism?

Who coined it?

Mechanism is the idea that everything about humans can be reduced to mechanics. We can be entirely physically defined and mathematically calculated.

Descartes #clockwork

What is Reductionism?
Dividing things into their smallest possible categories. (Mechanism is very reductionist.)
Who was William Harvey?
A huge name in all of English medicine and experimental science. Father of embryology and circulation understanding the significance of the vales in the veins.
How was Harvey's discover of the purpose of circulation relevant?

He then extrapolates from this byremarking that this is what causes the circulation of diseases that enter thebody in one section then fill the entire body such as snakebites andinfections.

(^The concept that blood carries diseases.)

Who was the first to use Mathematics to PROVE something medical?
William Harvey. (Though Descartes often used logic his philosophies cannot be proven.)
Who is Hoffman?
A dude just thrown it back to God and the Humours. He was an iatro-mechanist.

He write many aphorisms.

An illness or diseases caused by a physician.

Ex. improper mixing of medication resulting in sores is an iatrogenic illness.

Who is Stahl? What was he really interested in/all about?
Georg Ernst Stahl was a romantic, AKA a huge Vitalist.

Thought that physics and chemistry CANNOT makeup a person. The soul and mind matter physiologically. Ex, heart beat increasing because of love/lust.

Interested in illness and not really disease.

What is VITALISM: Name some Vitalists.
Stahl, Newton?
"XVII. Whatannoys me above all is that, in this physical theory of the human body, life,even from its very beginning, has been passed over in silence, and that nowhere in it [the theory] do I see a logical definition [of life]. XXX. Iformally deny that anatomy is an integral part of medical art. XXXI. ... XLVI. Idon't deny that organic matter has a "mechanical disposition" but itis the human soul "that accomplishes its work in and over the body, for asmuch and for as long as it can." XLVI.passions of the soul can modify physiological movement, for example the beatingof the heart. "

Who said this? What does that make them?

Stahl. A Vitalist.
Who wrote like 6 pages about Gout?

What were they known for?

Thomas Sydenham.

Being the best clinical observer of the 17th century. The English Hippocrates.

"La Tabula Rasa"

A call to ___________.

John Lock.

Experimentation. #TestYourSenses


Who coined it?

The concept that everything we know does and must come from our senses.

The experience of something and then our inner perceptions of those experiences.

1) perception, 2) thinking, 3) doubting, 4) believing, 5) reasoning, 6) knowing, 7) willing,


Is Locke a Mechanist or a Vitalist?
He is a Sensationalist.

He neither confirms no defines either theory since neither theory is mutually exclusive to sensationalism the way they are to one another.

(One can be a vitalist and a sensationalist or a mechanist and a sensationalist.)

Name all the qualities of a Focus Note.

(HINT:There are 7)

"...and all the differentactings of our own minds; which we being conscious of, and observing inourselves, do from these receive into our understandings as distinct ideas aswe do from bodies affecting our senses. This source of ideas every man haswholly in himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do withexternal objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be calledinternal sense."

Who said it.

Locke. On sensationalism, and inner reflection AKA the second step of the knowledge process.

(Not to be confused with Descartes and reductionism.)

Name all the authors who called society to take an interest and experimentation.
Locke, physically experiment.

Descartes, logically experiment.



Paracelsus, fill out the Arcanum.



Who is the author of this text :First Lines and Nosologiamethodical
Cullen. About the classification of diseases in order to stream line details and treatments.

He was a 'Lumper'. (Less categories that were more broad in disease definition.)

Authors who recognize the best way to cure illness was to treat the disease/cause.


Reasoning from something general into something particular.

(Big to little.)

Reasoning from something particular into something general.

(Little to big.)

What is the term for: The use of signs in society and the reading of those signs.
Give me some names in Nosology.
Cullen: Lumper

Pinel: Categorizer

"This law consists inthe fact that each of our principal conceptions, each branch of our knowl­edge,passes in succession through three different theoretical states: thetheological or fictitious state, the metaphysical or ab­stract state, and thescientific or positive state."

Name that doctor.

Augustus Comte.
How do you make a disease an entity?
You give it a name.
A theory of knowledge that recognizes the impossibility of obtaining absolute truth, gives up thesearch after the origin and hidden causes of the universe and a knowl­edge ofthe final causes of phenomena. It endeavours now only to discover, through reasoning the actual laws ofphenomena—the actual explanation of facts, thus reduced to its real terms.
What was Comte ironically the father of?
Sociology AKA social physics one of the lesser positivistic studies of knowledge.
Facts strung together become....

Factual theories undisputed over time become...

Whose theory was this?

...Positive theories.



AUENBRUGGER, Leopold studied what?

And its affect on?

Percussion and its effect on the study of tuberculosis.
Who taped wine kegs in the basement of their fathers inn to see how much piqued remained in the kegs?
Leopold Auenbrugger.
Why were Nosologists direct descendants of sensualism?
Because the categorization that is nosology was only able to be done through observable symptoms.
Who made Auenbrugger's work famous?

What new invention resulted from Leopold's work?

Corvisart by publishing and teaching it to his students, and then Laennec who expanded on it.

The stethoscope. (Or the 19th century equivalent.)

Who was considered the greatest French clinician of the 19th century?
Rene Laennec.
"Taking a sheaf ofpaper I rolled it into a very tight roll, one end of which I placed over thepraecordial region, whilst I put my ear to the other. I was both surprised andgratified at being able to hear the beating of the heart with much greaterclearness and dis­tinctness than I had ever done before by direct applicationof my ear."

Name that doctor.

Laennec. On a fat woman and her chest.
Clinical Discourse.

Coing by, and means what?


A specialized positivistic language.

Define auscultation.
The act of active listening, either directly or through a stethoscope or other instrument, to sounds within the body as a method of diagnosis.
Who invented the language for percussive diagnosis?
Laennec was the one who invented the stethoscope so he was the one who invented the bedside manner and basic breathing sounds we still use today. Though it was Auenbrugger who first identified the use of percussion as a diagnostic tool it was Laennec who who made it popular and therefore made anatomy relevant to diagnostic medicine.
How, When and why did the names of diseases start to change?

Bonus: Who started the revolution.

In the 19th century, due to the development of diagnostic tools diseases no longer stool on their own with symptoms but the symptoms now kept company with causes.

The names become revolved around causes in illness instead of the symptoms of illness.

Bonus: Laennec

Is an observation a symptom?
No! An observation is a sign because it involves knowledge and characteristics but is not a symptom because it does not come form the patient and is not reflective of the subjective experience of being sick.
Who studied Tuberculosis?
Laennec, Louis,
The crisis of an illness. The peak of all the symptoms at one time.
Fact with a narrow chance for error, cause and effect style. The accumulation of true facts become law. We do not worry about 1t or final causes.

^What is this theory called.

Who were supporter sod this theory?


Comte(founder), Laennec, Louis, Semmelweis.

The study of the CASUES of diseases.
Who is considered the father of Numerical Medicine?

Why were they considered so?

Louis Pierre.

In his attempt to find the causing factors of TB. (Age, sex, lifestyle.) He also used it to prove things don't work, like blood letting during a pneumonia.

What doctor from this course shares the name of a GoT Character?

Why are they equally badass?

This shows awareness of what kind of theory?

John Snow.

He followed the facts and tracked down the cause of cholera in England which was a pump on Broad street and then removed handle as to stop/slow the outbreak in that particular area.

Germ Theory.

When was the very first concept of germ theory mentioned?
Fracastorius talks about how one person can syphilis from another by participating in 'fornicating acts'. It's been around forever and touched on by almost everyone.
"Puerperal fever isnot a contagious disease. By contagious disease we understand the sort ofdisease which itself produces the con­tagion by which it is propagated, .... Smallpoxis a contagious disease because smallpox produces the contagion by whichsmallpox can be reproduced in another individual. "

Name that doctor. On what are they speaking?


Childbed fever.

Who instigated the lime-chlorine hand wash?

Why did they do this?


To decrease the mortality rate in hospitals from doctors who hands went from cadavers to newly-borns.

Define Epidemiology.

Who is the father of it?

The branch of medicine dealing with the incidence and prevalence of disease in large populations and with detection of the source and cause of epidemics of infectious disease.

John Snow.

"This new structure is indicated... whereby the ques­tion: ‘Whatis the matter with you?’, with which the eighteenth- century dialogue betweendoctor and patient began ... , wasreplaced by that other question: ‘Where does it hurt?’, in which we recognizethe operation of the clinic and the principle of its entire discourse."

Name that Doctor. On What?


The birth of the medical clinic.

The Clinical Gaze.

Coined by, and means what?


The hidden can be revealed with a deep kind of observation combined with knowledge.

Who was Joseph Lister?

What illness did he study?

A British surgeon and the man who invented antiseptic in it is first form.

Compound fractures (Broken bones and exposed flesh/ripped skin.)

Who was a french chemist specializing in rabies?
Louis Pasteur.
The living germ. Who crossed this concept and with which diseases. Why id this relevant?
Lister, Infections

Pasteur, Rabies

Koch, TB

They were finding was to kill it or make us immune to it.

What are Koch's Postulates?

What does it prove.

1) X must be present in every single case.

2) You must isolate X and grow in a pure culture.

3) You must use the pure culture to reproduce X in another animal.

4) You must demonstrate from newly infected animal that you can isolate and regrow X in a new pure culture.


Who was the first doctor/ philosopher to use the word BACTERIA?
The German doctor Robert Koch.

On Tuberculosis.

What is proven by the existence of Koch's Postulate and TB?
This demonstrates that bacteria are ontological, exist and grow ontheir own and can infect other beings.

Implication on victim blaming and the rush to find all the bacteria. (Causing an epistemological rupture.)

Who is GB Shaw?
An Irish playwright who wrote 'The Doctor's Dilemma'. A satyr about germs commenting on the social bandwagon created by Koch.
What is the Wassermann test?

Who invented it?

The first real blood test for syphilis.

Ludwick Fleck, a little polish man.

(But he was ripped off by Thomas Kuhn.)

What is the difference between sensitive and specific lab tests?

More likely to get a false positive, will not get false negative.


More likely to get a false negative, will not get a false positive.

Who is the father of bacteriology?

This was the final point of what medical development?

Thomas Kuhn.

The patient has almost no controls over their sickness any longer.

Who focused on Quality of life argument?
Rene J. Dubos
Social Constructionist Theory: what is it?

They argue what?

An anti-positivistic theory suggesting that th eposisitivsts are 'missing something'.

That we are not actually tracing cause and effects most of the time, just mutual correlations.

What is Trisomy 21? Who coined the name.

What are the advantages of his discovery?

Jerome Lejeune
Brief history of Down-syndrome.

Who first described it?

Who is it named after?

Edward Seguin, he called it Furfuraceous Idiocy.

J. Langdon Down, he called it mongolism because he was a racist and attributed all disease to ethnicity.

They renamed it Down syndrome when racism became unpopular.

Who discovered the 21st chromosome?
A french paediatrician named Jerome Lejeune.
Jean Dausset, Who is he?

what does he argue?

A geneticist who is bringing back the fight for the physiological argument.

Essentially, that everyone has their own specific mix of DNA markers and everything else in their body needs to be in balance. #The Humours and that it is ht presence or absence elf these thins that makes them sick/well. Or predisposed to things.

"One of the paradoxicalaspects of the health picture is that de­spite the improvements in sanitationand nutrition, despite effec­tive protection against heat, cold, humidity, andphysical fatigue, an increasingly large percentage of the population depends onmedical help for its daily existence."

Name that doctor.

A french/american doctor Rene J. Dubos
"This steady, semantic shift acknowledges the consensus-building requiredfor an idea to achieve recognition. Diehard critics of medical enterprise showthat biological realities can be constructed too, and remind us that we canperceive only what we are primed to seek; they point to the nature of medicalepistemology as a hermeneutic product."

Name that philosopher.

J. Duffin.
Authors writing on quality of Life were:
Risse and Cousins
What authors wrote at length about cancer?
Booth, Sontang and Trillin.
“Our fear ofdeath makes it essential to maintain a distance between ourselves and anyonewho is threatened by death. Denying our connection to the precariousness ofothers’ lives is a way of pretending that we are immortal.”

Name that author, on what was she writing?

Alice Trillin, on Cancer.
Morbidity and mortality Weekly Report