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72 Cards in this Set

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A reservoir has oil, water , and gas, write down the formulas to calculate the saturation of each if you know the pore volume is Vp
oil = So = Vo/Vp
water = Sw = Vw=Vp
Gas = Sg= Vg/Vp
The unit of porosity is what?
Porosity is dimensionless
but it can be reported in percent
Reservoir simulation requires the determination of velocity, pressure, and saturation as a function of what?
Time and location
Why is HF not a preferred acid in carbonate rocks?
It will cause a reaction that produces precipitates.
What test is possible to identify vugs?
X-ray scan
What are vugs?
isolated pores
Relative permeability depends on what?
Phase saturation and Rock wettability
In the emulsion (water in oil) water is the
dispersed phase
Capillary viscometer is used to measure the viscosity of Newtonian Fluids (T/F)
Solution of water with soluble salt like NaCl, KCL, and sugar is also A Newtonian Fluid (T/F)
Reaction of HCL is more vigorous with one of than the other
calcite or dolomite
The main reason of using HCl in carbonate rock is
the fact that products from HCl are soluble in water.
You can beat the egg white to make it thin, is egg white a Newtonian fluid?
Jim used a caliper to measure the bulk volume of a rock sample, the value was less than the value of the matrix volume told by the TA in the lab for the same sample. Who made the error?
the TA made the error
Mud acid is what?
HCl + HF
Density of calcite (CaCO3) is 2.7 gm/cc, which is greater than that of SiO2 (T/F)
A solid-liquid suspension system is called what
A slurry
What is a method of oil recovery that injects water into the formation?
Water Flooding
When there is no vertical permeability between water and oil zone, the water production can simply be stopped by using a
Cementing the formation
Disposal wells are used for what?
disposing the water produced from the formation
if there are more than one fluid present in the pore space, the permeability of the rock to a particular fluid is called
relative permeability
The tendency of a fluid to adhere to a solid in the presence of other immiscible fluid is called what?
Whether gas is present as a separate phase or dissolved in water, depends on
If there are two phases, oil and water, present in the pore space: write the expression for their respective saturations
Swater = Vwater/Vpore
Soil= Voil/Vpore
if there are more than one fluid present iI the pore space, the space occupied by a particular fluid is given by its what?
For a zone that produces both oil and water , the way to reduce water production is by reducing the
density of water
To stop water production, what is pumped in the water zone?
What are two types of nonnewtonian fluids?
suspensions and lubricators
In Newtonian fluids, the viscosity depends on the ( ) while in non newtonian fluids it depends on ( )
shear stress
What is the resistance of a fluid to flow?
Cementation can be due to what two things?
Pressure, temperature
HF always reacts with clays first because of
high surface area
What kind of sand is defined by tightly packed sand particles and grains?
The two main minerals in carbonate rocks are what?
dolomite and calcite
The two most common types of reservoir rock are
carbonate and sandstone
The movement of fluids between two zones in a reservoir depends on what?
vertical permeability
Darcy's Law is used to determine rock what?
What is the measure of the ability of a porous medium to allow the passage of fluids?
( ) of a solid is the type of porosity that actually contributes to the flow of fluids?
effective porosity
If you take away the pore volume of a solid from its total the volume, the remaining volume is called the ?
matrix volume
The fraction of total volume of a porous medium able to host liquids is called
absolute porosity
The density of crude oil is about
0.8 g/cc
What are newtonian fluids?
water, crude oil, and salt water
Newton's law for viscosity is
shear stress/shear rate
If cementation is calcite or dolomite in sandstone, injecting what can trigger sand production?
Darcys's equation is
q=Delat P*A*K/mew*L
Can a rock have 4 phases in it? give an example of the four phases.
yes, water, oil, gas, and solids
Percenatge saturation is defined as the ration between the ( ) and the ( )? Where there are several fluids inside the reservoir, ( ) percentage should be equal to ( )?
fluid volume
pore volume
total percent saturation
( ) is the name of a procecess in which a production engineer stop water production from a water-producing zone. This can be done by using ( ) or ( ). The second method, although cheaper is only used if ( )?
Water shutoff
cement plug
natural sealing shale is available
When you hear the word of water in the field, you should expect one or more types of production problems such as
lost of hydrocarbon production, bacteria,corrosion, emulsion, scale disposing problems
The importance of fluid viscosity can be observed clearly in the petroleum industry in applications such as ?
water flooding and slowing down settling velocity
Adding a small amount of polymer to water significantly ( ) its viscosity and the fluid becomes ( ), which means that its viscosity may ( ) with the changing the ( )
When using the capillary viscometer ( ) should b kept constant, no ( ) should be present inside the tube, and the tube should be exactly ( )
air bubbles
Viscosity of Newtonian fluids can be measured in the lab using ( ) which gives the visocisty in a unit of ( )
capillary viscometer
Viscosity is defined as the ( ) and has a unit of ( )
fluid resistance to flow
Because it is very ( ), HF is produced and prepared ( )
on the rig
Mud acid is a mixture of ( ) and it is used to stimulate ( ) formation, The role that the first component plays is keeping the reaction products ( )
HCl + HF
The main components in sandstone are (), (), and ( ). It may also contain (), (), and ()
Si02 (silicate)
Fe (iron)
Al2O3 (alumina)
Na20 (soda)
CaO (Lime)
MgO (Magnesia)
Hydrochloric acid reacts with ( ) formation and doesn not reat with ( )
silica silicates
XRD stands for ( ) and it used to ( )
X-Ray Defraction
identify vugs
Mineral is definas as any ( ) salt that has ( ) form
True density is ( ) than the bulk density because the ( ) density measures the density with having pores inside the body
Different rocks have different densities. For example, Calcite has a desnsity of ( ), Dolomite has a density of ( ), and sandstone of ( )
2.7-2.71 g/cc
2.85 -2.87 g/cc
2.65 g/cc
increaseing the rock porosity ( ) rock strength () density, () thermal conductivity, and () electric conductivity
Salty and dense water is used in the field to kill producing wells by increaseing ( ) above the ()
hydrostatic pressure
target zone
Increasing salt concentration in water ( ) density, () boiling temperature, () viscosity, () surface tension, and ( ) electric conductivity
What sedimentary facie?
a stratigraphic body distinguishable from surrounding strata by its characteristics and appearance that, in turn, result from the depositional environment
What is a depositional system?
a 3D genetically defined, physical stratigraphic unit comprised of a contiguous set of process related sedimentary facies
What are the primary types sandstone porosity?
Intergranual: interstital void sapce between framework grains
Micropores: small proes mainly between detrital framework grains or cement (primary or secondary orgin)
What are the secondary types of sandstone porosity?
Dissultion : Partial or complete dissoultuion of or authigenic grains
Fracture : breakage due to earth stresses
What are the geologic factors affecting permeability?
Size and shape of the grains
rock-fluid interationcs
What are the carbonate porosity types?
interparticle: pores between particles or grains
intraparticle: proes within individual particles or grains
intercrystal: pores between crystals
moldic: pores formed by dissolution of an individual grain or crystal in the rock
fenestral: primary pores larger than garin supported interstices
fracture formed by a planar break in the rock
bug: large pores formed by indiscriminate dissolution of cements and grains