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8 Cards in this Set

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Pennington and hastie (order of witness testimony)

Studies primacy and recency effect. Manipulated the order of witness and testimony in a rape case. Found greatest number of guilty verdicts when strongest guilty witnesses and testimony came first. Another study proves story order more effective.

Cutler et al (use of expert witnesses) aim

To investigate whether hearing about psychological reasearch from an expert witness which casts doubt on the accuracy of eye witness testimony would affect jurors decision making by making them more sceptical.

Cutler et al Procedure

538 undergraduates. Video of a mock trial of a robbery. Individually completed a questionnaire on verdict, a memory test, rating scales and verdict confidence.

Four IV's in Cutler et al

1. Witness Identifying conditions (WIC) Either good (no disguise, hidden gun, two day delay) or bad ( disguise, handgun, 14 day delay)


2. Witness confidence- witnesses said they were either 100% or 80% confident about their identification.


3. Form of testimony- expert witness either gave a descriptive testimony about EWT or relied on figures.


4. Expert expressed an opinion on a scale of 0-25 on the accuracy of testimony.

Results of Cutler

1. Jurors verdict- when WIC is good, more guilty verdicts were given. Incresed of expert witness testimony was detailed.


2. Juror memory- 85% recalled testimony correctly so memory can't be blamed.


3. Juror Confidence- good in the good WIC condition. Increased if expert witness showed confidence.


Shows expert testimony improved jurors knowledge and pay more attention to WIC. Helps prevent miscarriages of justice.

Pickel inadmissible evidence aims?

1. Look at the role of the judges instructions when they were followed by a legal explanation.


2. To examine how much the credibility of the witness affect the jurors ability to ignore inadmissable evidence.

Pickel procedure

236 Bali state students. Both groups listended to an audio tape of a mock trial. Evidence that was inadmissible introduced by a witness, judge ruled it was inadmissible and should be ignored. One condition had a legal explanation the other didn't . Alex to decide on verdict, probable guilt and witness credibility.

Pickel Results

No explanation more likely to ignore and find guilty.


Credibility of witness had no significant effect.