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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

John Ray

natural historian

predecessor to Linnaeus

genus and species

organized based upon observed similarities and differences

Carolus Linnaeus

father of taxonomy

Classification of biological organisms according to their evolutionary relationships

Systema Naturae (organized Ray's system, added order and class)

similar organisms likely descended from a common ancestor

Comte de Buffon

species can change, environment is the driving force (microevolution)

species cannot give rise to new species (macroevolution)

Erasmus Darwin


Ideas on evolution, including human evolution

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

coined the term "biology"

Mechanism of evolution

theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics

acquired characteristics

Change within species results from need for change due to environmental change

These changes are then passed on to offspring

Georges Cuvier

vertebrate paleontologist

extinction-species can disappear from the fossil record

explanation- Catastrophism

Charles Lyell

father of modern ecology

Uniformitarianism- the same forces that acted in the past and shaped the fossil record are the same forces we see operating today

Thomas Malthus

English clergyman and economist

populations have the ability to increase exponentially, but don't because they are kept in check

Charles Darwin

wealthy natural historian

primary interest- how evolution occurs

On the Origin of Species 1859

dispelled Lamarckian theory

Galapagos finches (Darwin's finches)

Alfred Russell Wallace

little education

had similar ideas to Darwin

influenced theory of natural selection

1855 paper- species are descended from other species, new species result from environmental influences q

Gregor Mendel

father of genetics

discovered the units of inheritance and selection (alleles)

“modern synthesis” or Neodarwinian Theory: Darwinian evolutionary theory + modern genetics