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120 Cards in this Set

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Agents used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease

Six rights of drug administration

- Right person
- Right drug
- Right dose
- Right time
- Right route
- Right documentation

Body substance isolation (BSI)

Measures to decrease your risk of exposure to blood and body fluids


A condition free of pathogens


Limited to one area of the body


Throughout the body


Free of all forms of life

Medically clean

Careful handling to prevent contamination


Cleaning agent that is toxic to living tissue


Cleansing agent that is not toxic to living tissue

Needle handling precautions

- Minimize tasks in a moving ambulance
- Properly dispose of all sharps
- Recap needles only as a last resort

Sharps container

Rigid, puncture-resistant container clearly marked as a biohazard

Routes of drug administration

- Percutaneous
- Pulmonary
- Enteral
- Parenteral

Topical medications

Material applied to and absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes

Percutaneous Routes

- Transdermal
- Mucous membrane


Absorbed through the skin

Mucous membrane medication sites

- Tongue
- Cheek
- Eye
- Nose
- Ear


Beneath the tongue


Between the cheek and gums

Ocular medication

Drug administered through the mucous membranes of the eye

Nasal medication

Drug administered through the mucous membranes of the nose

Aural medication

Drug administered through the mucous membranes of the ear and ear canal


Drawing of medication into the lungs along with air during breathing


Placement of medication in or under the skin with a needle and syringe

Pulmonary medication mechanisms

- Nebulizer
- Metered dose inhaler
- Endotracheal tube


Inhalation aid that disperses liquid into aerosol spray or mist

Metered dose inhaler

Handheld device that produces a medicated spray for inhalation

Endotracheal medications

- Lidocaine
- Epinephrine
- Atropine
- Naloxone (narcan)

Enteral drug administration

Through the gastrointestinal tract

Enteral routes

- Oral
- Gastric tube
- Rectal

Hepatic alteration

Change in a medication's chemical composition that occurs in the liver


Medication packaged in a soft, pliable form for insertion into the rectum


A liquid bolus of medication that is injected into the rectum


Concentrated mass of medication


Outside of the gastrointestinal tract


Plastic tube which liquid medications can be drawn up, stored, and injected

Hypodermic needle

Hollow metal tube used with the syringe to administer medications


The size of a needle's diameter


Breakable glass vessel containing liquid medication


Plastic or glass container with a self-sealing rubber top

Nonconstituted drug vial/Mix-o-Vial

Vial with two containers, one holding a powdered medication and the other holding a liquid mixing solution

Prefilled/preloaded syringe

Syringe packaged in a tamperproof container with the medication already in the barrel

Medicated solution

Parenteral medication packaged in an IV bag and administered as an IV infusion


Liquid medication delivered through a vein

Pareneral routes

- Intradermal injection
- Subcutaneous injection
- Intramuscular injection
- Intraveneous access
- Intraosseous infusion


Within the dermal layer of the skin


The layer of loose connective tissue between the skin and the muscle


Within the muscle

Intramuscular injection sites

- Deltoid
- Dorsal gluteal
- Vastus lateralis
- Rectus femoris

Intravenous (IV) access

Surgical puncture of a vein to deliver medication or withdraw blood. Also called cannulation.

Peripheral venous access

Surgical puncture of a vein in the arm, leg, or neck

Central venous access

Surgical puncture of the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein

Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)

Line threaded into the central circulation via a peripheral site

Intravenous fluid

Chemically prepared solution tailored to the body's specific needs


Intravenous solutions containing large proteins that cannot pass through capillary membranes


Intravenous solutions that contain electrolytes but lack the larger proteins associated with colloids

Indications for intravenous access

- Fluid and blood replacement
- Drug administration
- Obtaining venous blood specimens for laboratory analysis

Crystalloid Classes

- Isotonic
- Hypertonic
- Hypotonic


State in which solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are in equal concentration


State in which a solution has a higher solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side


State in which a solution has a lower solute concentration on one side fo a semipermeable membrane than on the other side

Administration tubing

Flexible, clear plastic tubing that connects the solution bag to the IV cannula


Hollow needle used to puncture a vein

Microdrip tubing

Administration tubing that delivers a relatively large amount of fluid

Macrodrip tubing

Administration tubing that delivers a relatively large amount of fluid


Sharp-pointed device inserted into the IV solution bag's administration set port

Drip chamber

Clear plastic chamber that allows visualization of the dip rate

Drip rate

Pace at which the fluid moves from the bag into the patient

Drop former

Device that regulates the size of drops


Drops (Latin guttae, drops [gutta, drop])

Microdrip (gtts amount per mL)

60 gtts

Macrodrip (gtts amount per mL)

10 gtts

Medication injection port

Self-sealing membrane into which a hypodermic needle is inserted for drug administration

Needle adapter

Rapid plastic device specifically constructed to fit into the hub of a intravenous cannula

Extension tubing

IV tubing used to extend a macrodrip or microdrip setup

Measured volume administration set

IV setup that delivers specific volumes of fluid

Burette chamber

Calibrated chamber of Berutrol IV administration tubing that enables precise measurement and delivery of fluids and medicated solutions

Blood tubing

Administration tubing that contains a filter to prevent clots or other debris from entering the patient

Over-the needle catheter/angiocatheter

semiflexible catheter enclosing a sharp metal stylet

Hollow-needle catheter

Stylet that does not have a Teflon tube but is itself inserted into the vein and secured there

Catheter inserted through the needle/intracatheter

Teflon catheter inserted through a large metal stylet

Venous constricting band

Flat rubber band used to impede venous return and make veins easier to see

IV troubleshooting

- Consticting band still in place?
- Edema at puncture site?
- Cannula abutting vein wall or valve?
- Administration set control valves closed?
- IV bag too low?
- Completely filled drip chamber?
- Catheter patency


Leakage of fluid or medication from the blood vessel that is commonly found with infiltration

IV access complications

- Pain
- Local infection
- Pyrogenic reaction
- Allergic reaction
- Catheter shear
- Inadvertent arterial puncture
- Circulatory overload
- Thrombophlebitis
- Thrombus formation
- Air embolism
- Necrosis


Foreign protein capable of producing fever


Foreign particle in the blood

Circulatory overload

An excess in intravascular fluid volume


Inflammation of the vein


Blood clot

Air embolism

Air in the vein


The sloughing off of dead tissue


Drug that inhibits blood clotting

Heparin lock

Peripheral IV cannula wit a distal medication port used for intermittent fluid or medication infusions. Flushes of heparin solution, which inhibit blood coagulation, are used to maintain patency of the device

Saline lock

Peripheral IV cannula with a distal medication port used for intermittent fluid or medication infusions. Saline is injected into the device to maintain its patency.

Venous access device

Surgically implanted port that permits repeated access to central venous circulation

Huber needle

Needle that has an opening on the side of the shaft instead of the tip

Infusion controller

Gravity-flow device that regulates fluid's passage through an electromechanical pump


Outside the vein

Infusion pump

Device that delivers fluids and medications under positive pressure

Blood tube

Glass container with color-coded, self-sealing rubber top


Device that holds blood tubes

Luer sampling needle

Long, exposed needle that screws into the vacutainer and is inserted directly into the vein


Elevated numbers of red and white blood cells


The destruction of red blood cells


Within the bone


A sharp, pointed instrument

Intraosseous access complications

- Fracture
- Infiltration
- Growth plate damage
- Complete insertion
- Pulmonary embolism
- Infection

Contraindications to intraosseous placement

- Fracture to the tibia or femur on the side of access
- Osteogenesis imperfecta - a congenital bone disease that results in fragile bones
- Osteoporosis
- Establishment of a peripheral IV line

Fundamental metric units

- Grams - mass
- Meters - distance
- Liters - volume


Predetermined amount of medication or fluid

Stock solution

Standard concentration of routinely used medications

Desired dose

Specific quantity of medication needed


Weight per volume

Dosage on hand

The amount of drug available in a solution

Volume on hand

The available amount of solution containing a medication

Volume to be administered = ?

Volume on hand (desired dose) / dosage on hand

Infusion rate

Speed at which a medication is delivered intravenously

Drops per minute = ?

(Ordered mL per hour x drip set factor) / 60 minutes

Dopamine formula

(mcg ordered x kg of patient x drip factor) / mcg per mL in premixed bag

(mcg ordered x kg x 60) / 1600