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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the non-enveloped hepatitis viruses and what makes them special?
A & E
Non-enveloped means they can survive passage thru the stomach and thus be transmitted fecal-oral.
Chronic disease doesn't occur in what hepatitis virus infections?
A & E
Where is hep B endemic and how is it transmitted usually in those areas?
subsaharan Africa, SE Asia.

in utero or perinatally.
Chronic infections to Hep C develop in ____% of infected; while ____% will develop cirrhosis
80-90%; 20%
T/F Cirrhosis due to hep C is the predisposing condition for 50% of hepatocellular carcinomas in the US
What are the histopathologic features of classic, acute viral hepatitis?
lobular disarray.


Due to the processes of Chronic inflammation
Hepatocellular necrosis & apoptosis
Hepatocellular regeneration

Which compete
ballooning degeneration: in what states is it seen?
swelling of hepatocytes that occurs in acute viral hep.
What is acute viral hepatitis with massive hepatic necrosis?
The most severe form of hepatic injury, occurring in <1% of cases of viral hepatitis. Liver shows uniform disappearance of hepatocytes in all lobules of the liver (panlobular necrosis).

Has a high mortality rate but some patients can be rescued with emergency liver transplant
The ___ ligament is the rough dividing line between the two lobes of liver.
Zone _ encircles the portal tracts where the oxygenated blood from hepatic arteries enters. Zone _ is located around central veins, where oxygenation is poor. Zone _ is located in between.
1; 3; 2
The most common cause of fatty change in developed nations is ______.
What is the difference between macro and micronodular cirrhosis?
Macro: nodules are >3 cm; Micro, <3 cm
Viral hepatitis (B or C) is the most common cause for (micro, macro) nodular cirrhosis.
Wilson's disease and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency can produce a (micro, macro)nodular cirrhosis.
Alcohol cirrhosis is a (micro, macro)nodular cirrhosis.
What is the asymptomatic chronic carrier state>
Occurs in Hep B and C.

Dxed serologically. There is not necrosis or cellular inflammation
What does the histology of chronic B carriers look like?
eccentric nuclei, weakly eosinophilic, ground glass cytoplasm.
Chronic active hepatitis is characterized by what?
continued liver cell damage that progresses to cirrhosis.

Mode of progression of hepatocellular disease instead of a specific, viral induced injury.
What three histological feaures are necessary for a dx of Chronic active hepatitis?
1) Fibrous reparative response
2) Piecemeal hepatocellular necrosis
3) Inflammation with lymphs and plasma cells
What is "piecemeal" necrosis?
spotty necrosis that is most severe adjacent to portal tracts and inflammatory fibrous septa.

By a process of creeping fibrosis, then piecemeal necrosis, hepatic architecture becomes progressively more distorted by scar tissue
most common sequelae of chronic viral hepatitis
What organelle is most abnormal in hepatocytes in alcoholic liver disease? What changes are seen?
Mitochondria. Enlarged, deformed, decreased cristae.
What are Mallory bodies?
accumulation of lipid as non-membrane bound, cytoplasmic droplets.

globular red hyaline material within hepatocytes.The globules are aggregates of intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm resulting from hepatocyte injury.