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64 Cards in this Set

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Dekleyn's Test

Tests for: basilar insufficiency


Examiner passively extends and rotates head, holds for 30 seconds


Positive: nystagmus, nausea, sensory disturbances

Not performed

Sharp-Purser Test

Tests for: sublaxation of the atlas on the axis


Examiner places hand on patients forehead and patient actively flexes head


Positive: head sliding or clunking

Not performed

Spurling's Test

Tests for: foraminal compression, facet sprain


1. Examiner places hands on top of patient's head and pushes down


2. Head is extended and pushed down again


3. Extended and rotated to unaffected side, pushed down


4. Extended and rotated to affected side, pushed down


Positive: neck pain radiating into arm

Performed if patient has a history of nerve root symptoms

Maximal Cervical Compression

Tests for: foraminal compression, neural involvement


Patient side bends head one way and rotates it to the same side. Examiner applied compression


Positive: neck pain radiating into arm

May place VA in compression

Wright's Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (compression in costoclavivular space)


Examiner locates radial pulse and holding pulse, abducts patient's arm. Patient may look away or take deep breath


Positive: diminished pulse

Allen's Manoeuvre

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (compression of axillary artery by pec minor)


Examiner locates radial pulse and holding pulse, moves elbow to 90* abduction and ER


Positive: diminished pulse or pulse disappears

Adson's Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (interscalene compromise)


Examiner locates radial pulse. Patient turns head towards test side and examiner abducts patient's arm


Positive: diminished pulse or pulse disappears

Military Posture Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome


(compression in costoclavivular space)


Examiner locates radial pulse on both sides, then passively draws patient's arms downwards and backwards


Positive: absence of pulse or diminished pulse

Slump Test

Tests for: neurological dysfunction, disc injury


1. Patient slumps forwards, head and neck facing forward


2. Overpressure of trunk flexion is applied by examiner


3. Patient brings chin to chest


4. Knee is actively extended


5. Ankle is dorsiflexed


Positive: reproduced pain at any step, excess knee extension and symptoms decreasing with neck extension indicate neuromeningeal tract

Positive test must reproduce patient's symptoms



Valsalva Manoeuvre

Tests for: suspected neural involvement, sciatica or disc injury


Positive: pain, intrathecal pressure

Brudinski-Kernig Test

Tests for: meningeal irritation, nerve root or dural irritation


Patient flexes chin to chest, raises extended leg at the hip until pain is felt. At this time, knee is flexed


Positive: pain disappears on knee flexion

Femoral Shear Test

Tests for: SIJ dysfunction


Examiner flexes patient's knee and hip, compresses down towards table in 4 quadrants


Positive: SIJ pain

Supine variation of hip quadrant test

Erichsen's Test

Tests for: SIJ involvement


Examiner interlaces fingers and cups lateral aspects of sacrum


Positive: pain

Neer's Impingment Test

Tests for: Impingment via supraspinatous/bicipital tendonitis or impingment syndrome


Examiner passively raises pronated arm into flexion (slightly abducted) until arm is proximal to ear


Positive: anterior or deep shoulder pain

Also a test for rotator cuff

Cross-body Adduction Test

Tests for: AC/GH joint dysfunction


Examiner flexes shoulder to 90°and adducts across chest


Positive: pain at AC joint

This test impinges the AC

Empty Can Test

Tests for: supraspinatous tendonitis


Examiner abducts arm to 90° in scapular plane, first resists flexion with arm pronated, then supinated


Positive: pain in the shoulder, supraspinatus pain

Infraspinatus/Teres Minor Test

Tests for: infraspinatus and teres minor weakness


Examiner flexes shoulder and elbow to 90°, resists ER


Positive: pain

O'Brien's Test

Tests for: labral involvement


Examiner flexes arm to 90° and horizontal adducts 30°. Arm is internally rotates and resists downwards force. Repeated with external rotation


Positive: pain brought on with IR/pronation and relieves with ER/supination

Speeds Test

Tests for: bicipital tendon injury (related to labrum injury)


Examiner resists flexion with patient's arm extended (supinated then pronated), then flexes arm to 90° and repeats the process


Positive: pain in bicipital groove, particular in supination

Serratus Anterior Weakness

Tests for: serratus anterior weakness or paralysis


Patient flexes arm to 90° (punch position) and examiner applies backwards force to arm


Positive: medial border of scapula winging

Yergason's Test

Tests for: ability of transvere humeral ligament to hold bicipital tendon in groove


Patient flexes elbow to 90° and keeps elbow at side. Examiner resists supination and external rotation


Positive: snapping, clicking, or pain in groove

Load and Shift Test

Tests for: instability


Examiner axially loads patient's arm (10-15° abduction) and translates anteriorly and posteriorly


Positive: excessive movement in either direction

Upper Limb Tension Test 1

Shoulder – depression and abduction(110°)


Elbow – extension


Forearm – supination


Wrist – extension


Fingers and Thumb – extension Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending


Nerve bias: median nerve, anterior IO nerve (C5,6,7)

Upper Limb Tension Test 2

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10°)


Elbow – extension


Forearm – supination


Wrist – extension


Fingers and Thumb – extension Shoulder – external rotation


Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending


Nerve bias: median Nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, axillary nerve (C5,6,7)

Upper Limb Tension Test 3

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10°)


Elbow – extension


Forearm – pronation


Wrist – flexion and ulnar deviation


Fingers and Thumb – flexion


Shoulder – internal rotation


Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending


Nerve bias: Radial Nerve

Upper Limb Tension Test 4

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10-90°) (hand to ear)


Forearm – supination


Wrist – extension and radial deviation


Fingers and Thumb – extension Shoulder – external rotation


Elbow – flexion


Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending


Nerve bias: Ulnar Nerve (C8-T1 nerve roots)

Cozen's Test

Tests for: lateral epicondylitis


Examiner stabilises elbow with thumb on lateral epicondyle. Patient actively pronates, radially deviates and extends wrist


Positive: sudden, severe pain

Mill's Test

Tests for: lateral epicondylitis


Examiner passively pronates patient's forearm, flexes wrist, and extends elbow


Positive: pain over lateral epicondyle

Can also be performed actively by patient 'punching backwards'

Middle Finger Extension Test

Tests for: stressed muscle (extensor digitorum)


With patient supine and arm pronated, extension of the middle finger is resisted by examiner


Positive: pain over lateral epicondyle

Medial Epicondylitis Test

Tests for: medial epicondylitis


Examiner passively supinates forearm of patient, extends elbow and wrist


Positive: pain over medial epicondyle

Elbow Flexion Test

Tests for: cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar nerve comprimise)


Patient actively fully flexes elbow with extension of wrist and shoulder abduction/depression. Holds this position for 3-5 minutes


Positive: tingling or numbness in ulnar nerve distribution

Nerves for pinch-grip test and muscles for Finkelstein's

Pinch-grip test: anterior interosseous nerve


Finkelstein's: AbPL & EPBr



Lachman Test

Tests for: ACL injury


Examiner places patient's leg into minimal flexion (with towel or pillow) pushes posteriorly on femur and pulls anteriorly on calf


Positive: pain, excessive movement

Slocum Test

Tests for: anteromedial rotatory instability (abnormal tibial motion)


Positive with IR: movement will occur mostly laterally and will be excessive compared to other side (indicates ACL, LCL, PCL, ITB)


Positive with ER: movement will occur mostly on medial side and will be excessive compared to other side (indicates MCL, posterior oblique ligament, ACL)

McMurray's Test

Tests for: meniscus injuries


Examiner flexes the knee and hip of patient, internally rotates foot and extends leg whilst provided an external force. Then externally rotates foot and repeats but with an internal force


Positive with foot IR: lateral meniscus


Positive with foot ER: medial meniscus


Positive: flexion pain indicates posterior horn of meniscus, extension pain indications anterior meniscus


Bounce Test

Tests for: meniscus (tearing)


Examiner flexes patient's knee and hip, allowing passive extension of the leg


Positive: blockage of full extension/pain may indicate torn meniscus

Patella Glide Test

Tests for: passive patellar mobility


Patient keeps quads relaxed while examiner moves patella medially, laterally, superiorly and inferiorly


Positive: excessive or restricted motion

Patella Tilt Test

Tests for: risk of patellofemoral syndrome


Examiner lifts lateral patella away from patient's leg


Positive: excessive angle of lift (normal angle is 15°)

Patella Grind Test

Tests for: patellofemoral dysfunction


Examiner cups hand around lower femur, pushes patella inferiorly. Patient contracts quads


Positive: pain, crepitus

Patella Aprehension Test

Tests for: patella dislocation


Examiner flexes patient's knee with own leg, then pulls patient's patella laterally


Positive: quad contraction and appearance of apprehension on face of patient

Mediopatella Plica Test

Tests for: patella dislocation


Examiner flexes patient's knee with own leg, then pulls patient's patella medially


Positive: pain with medial glide

Dorsiflexion Manoeuvre

Tests for: separation of distal tib/fib


Examiner passively dorsiflexes patient's foot while stabilising their leg with other hand


Positive: reproduction of pain

Fibular Translation Test

Tests for: syndesmotic ankle sprain (issue with syndesmosis)


Examiner applies AP force on the fibula at level of the syndesmosis


Positive: pain or excessive motion

Anterior Drawer Test

Tests for: instability of the ATFL


Examiner grasps heel of supine patient and gently pulls heel forward


Positive: excessive anterior displacement

Dimple sign in front of the lateral malleolus may appear

Calcaneal Tilt Test

Tests for: ligamentous instability


Examiner grasps calcaneus in both hands and inverts the foot


Positive: excessive movement, pain

Talar Tilt and Rock

Tests for: stability of calcaneofibular ligament


Examiner grasps and moves foot into add/abd. Then distracts foot and moves DF/PF


Positive: pain or hypermobility

Thompson's Test

Tests for: achillies tendon rupture


Examiner squeezes the calf of prone patient, observing for plantar flexion


Positive: no plantar flexion

Sign of the Buttock

Tests for: ischial bursitis, neoplasm, buttock abscess and hip pathology


Examiner performs SLR and when reaching limitation, flexes the patient's knees, observing for greater hip flexion


Positive: hip flexion not increasing, indicates lesion is not sciatic nerve or hamstrings

Anterior Shear/Sagittal Stress-Test

Tests for: integrity of ligaments and capsular structures in Cx


Examiner applies anterior force to each Cx SP, feeling for stretch and an abrupt stop


Positive: nystagmus, nausea, lump in throat

Distraction Test

Tests for: radicular symptom alleviation


Examiner lifts patients head, applying traction to Cx


Positive: pain being alleviated, indicating pressured nerve roots

Straight Leg Raise indication

Neural tension

Cross Straight Leg Raise indication

Rules in disc herniation

Hawkins-Kennedy Test

Tests for: supraspinatus tendinitis or impingement


Examiner passively flexes patient's shoulder and elbow to 90°, applies internal rotation forcefully


Positive: pain

Drop-arm Test

Tests for: supraspinatus


Patient slowly lowers arms to waist


Positive: sudden uncontrolled drop of the arm

Subscapularis Lift-off Test

Tests for: subscapularis weakness


Patient places hand on back against lumbar spine, then lifts hand back as far as possible


Positive: unable to lift or maintain lift

Belly Press Test

Tests for: subscapularis weakness


Patient places hand on belly, keeps elbow level with hand. Examiner then places their hand in between patients hand and belly. Patient presses down firmly


Positive: inability to press, dropping of the elbow, flexing the wrist

Anterior Slide Test

Tests for: slap lesion


Patients puts both hands on hips and examiner axially loads the GH joints one at a time


Positive: pain with motion

Tinel's Sign of the Elbow

Tests for: nerve compression, neuroma


Examiner taps over ulnar nerve in groove between olecranon and medial epicondyle


Positive: tingling in hand

Tingles distal to compression is common entrapment

Wrist and Hand deviations

Both TFL test and Finklestein's deviate to the ulna

Long Sitting Test

Differentiates functional verses anatomical leg length


If patient cannot rise symmetrically, indicates pelvis dysfunction or rotation

Sign of the Buttock

If hip flexion is not increased when knee is flexed, the lesion is in the buttock and not the sciatic nerve or hamstring


Positive could indicate ischial bursitis, neoplasm, abscess, hip joint dysfunction

Ely's Test

Tests for: rectus femoris tightness


Examiner passively flexes the knee of prone patients, as far as possible


Positive: hip flexing

Apley's Compression and Distraction

Positive: pain reproduced during compression and alleived during distraction, clicking or popping


Pain on distraction only may indicate ligamentous lesion

Patella Grind

Tests for: patellofemoral dysfunction


Positive: clicking, pain, crepitus