Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Dekleyn's Test

Tests for: basilar insufficiency

Examiner passively extends and rotates head, holds for 30 seconds

Positive: nystagmus, nausea, sensory disturbances

Not performed

Sharp-Purser Test

Tests for: sublaxation of the atlas on the axis

Examiner places hand on patients forehead and patient actively flexes head

Positive: head sliding or clunking

Not performed

Spurling's Test

Tests for: foraminal compression, facet sprain

1. Examiner places hands on top of patient's head and pushes down

2. Head is extended and pushed down again

3. Extended and rotated to unaffected side, pushed down

4. Extended and rotated to affected side, pushed down

Positive: neck pain radiating into arm

Performed if patient has a history of nerve root symptoms

Maximal Cervical Compression

Tests for: foraminal compression, neural involvement

Patient side bends head one way and rotates it to the same side. Examiner applied compression

Positive: neck pain radiating into arm

May place VA in compression

Wright's Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (compression in costoclavivular space)

Examiner locates radial pulse and holding pulse, abducts patient's arm. Patient may look away or take deep breath

Positive: diminished pulse

Allen's Manoeuvre

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (compression of axillary artery by pec minor)

Examiner locates radial pulse and holding pulse, moves elbow to 90* abduction and ER

Positive: diminished pulse or pulse disappears

Adson's Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome (interscalene compromise)

Examiner locates radial pulse. Patient turns head towards test side and examiner abducts patient's arm

Positive: diminished pulse or pulse disappears

Military Posture Test

Tests for: Tx outlet syndrome

(compression in costoclavivular space)

Examiner locates radial pulse on both sides, then passively draws patient's arms downwards and backwards

Positive: absence of pulse or diminished pulse

Slump Test

Tests for: neurological dysfunction, disc injury

1. Patient slumps forwards, head and neck facing forward

2. Overpressure of trunk flexion is applied by examiner

3. Patient brings chin to chest

4. Knee is actively extended

5. Ankle is dorsiflexed

Positive: reproduced pain at any step, excess knee extension and symptoms decreasing with neck extension indicate neuromeningeal tract

Positive test must reproduce patient's symptoms

Valsalva Manoeuvre

Tests for: suspected neural involvement, sciatica or disc injury

Positive: pain, intrathecal pressure

Brudinski-Kernig Test

Tests for: meningeal irritation, nerve root or dural irritation

Patient flexes chin to chest, raises extended leg at the hip until pain is felt. At this time, knee is flexed

Positive: pain disappears on knee flexion

Femoral Shear Test

Tests for: SIJ dysfunction

Examiner flexes patient's knee and hip, compresses down towards table in 4 quadrants

Positive: SIJ pain

Supine variation of hip quadrant test

Erichsen's Test

Tests for: SIJ involvement

Examiner interlaces fingers and cups lateral aspects of sacrum

Positive: pain

Neer's Impingment Test

Tests for: Impingment via supraspinatous/bicipital tendonitis or impingment syndrome

Examiner passively raises pronated arm into flexion (slightly abducted) until arm is proximal to ear

Positive: anterior or deep shoulder pain

Also a test for rotator cuff

Cross-body Adduction Test

Tests for: AC/GH joint dysfunction

Examiner flexes shoulder to 90°and adducts across chest

Positive: pain at AC joint

This test impinges the AC

Empty Can Test

Tests for: supraspinatous tendonitis

Examiner abducts arm to 90° in scapular plane, first resists flexion with arm pronated, then supinated

Positive: pain in the shoulder, supraspinatus pain

Infraspinatus/Teres Minor Test

Tests for: infraspinatus and teres minor weakness

Examiner flexes shoulder and elbow to 90°, resists ER

Positive: pain

O'Brien's Test

Tests for: labral involvement

Examiner flexes arm to 90° and horizontal adducts 30°. Arm is internally rotates and resists downwards force. Repeated with external rotation

Positive: pain brought on with IR/pronation and relieves with ER/supination

Speeds Test

Tests for: bicipital tendon injury (related to labrum injury)

Examiner resists flexion with patient's arm extended (supinated then pronated), then flexes arm to 90° and repeats the process

Positive: pain in bicipital groove, particular in supination

Serratus Anterior Weakness

Tests for: serratus anterior weakness or paralysis

Patient flexes arm to 90° (punch position) and examiner applies backwards force to arm

Positive: medial border of scapula winging

Yergason's Test

Tests for: ability of transvere humeral ligament to hold bicipital tendon in groove

Patient flexes elbow to 90° and keeps elbow at side. Examiner resists supination and external rotation

Positive: snapping, clicking, or pain in groove

Load and Shift Test

Tests for: instability

Examiner axially loads patient's arm (10-15° abduction) and translates anteriorly and posteriorly

Positive: excessive movement in either direction

Upper Limb Tension Test 1

Shoulder – depression and abduction(110°)

Elbow – extension

Forearm – supination

Wrist – extension

Fingers and Thumb – extension Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending

Nerve bias: median nerve, anterior IO nerve (C5,6,7)

Upper Limb Tension Test 2

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10°)

Elbow – extension

Forearm – supination

Wrist – extension

Fingers and Thumb – extension Shoulder – external rotation

Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending

Nerve bias: median Nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, axillary nerve (C5,6,7)

Upper Limb Tension Test 3

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10°)

Elbow – extension

Forearm – pronation

Wrist – flexion and ulnar deviation

Fingers and Thumb – flexion

Shoulder – internal rotation

Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending

Nerve bias: Radial Nerve

Upper Limb Tension Test 4

Shoulder – depression and abduction (10-90°) (hand to ear)

Forearm – supination

Wrist – extension and radial deviation

Fingers and Thumb – extension Shoulder – external rotation

Elbow – flexion

Cx Spine – contralateral sidebending

Nerve bias: Ulnar Nerve (C8-T1 nerve roots)

Cozen's Test

Tests for: lateral epicondylitis

Examiner stabilises elbow with thumb on lateral epicondyle. Patient actively pronates, radially deviates and extends wrist

Positive: sudden, severe pain

Mill's Test

Tests for: lateral epicondylitis

Examiner passively pronates patient's forearm, flexes wrist, and extends elbow

Positive: pain over lateral epicondyle

Can also be performed actively by patient 'punching backwards'

Middle Finger Extension Test

Tests for: stressed muscle (extensor digitorum)

With patient supine and arm pronated, extension of the middle finger is resisted by examiner

Positive: pain over lateral epicondyle

Medial Epicondylitis Test

Tests for: medial epicondylitis

Examiner passively supinates forearm of patient, extends elbow and wrist

Positive: pain over medial epicondyle

Elbow Flexion Test

Tests for: cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar nerve comprimise)

Patient actively fully flexes elbow with extension of wrist and shoulder abduction/depression. Holds this position for 3-5 minutes

Positive: tingling or numbness in ulnar nerve distribution

Nerves for pinch-grip test and muscles for Finkelstein's

Pinch-grip test: anterior interosseous nerve

Finkelstein's: AbPL & EPBr

Lachman Test

Tests for: ACL injury

Examiner places patient's leg into minimal flexion (with towel or pillow) pushes posteriorly on femur and pulls anteriorly on calf

Positive: pain, excessive movement

Slocum Test

Tests for: anteromedial rotatory instability (abnormal tibial motion)

Positive with IR: movement will occur mostly laterally and will be excessive compared to other side (indicates ACL, LCL, PCL, ITB)

Positive with ER: movement will occur mostly on medial side and will be excessive compared to other side (indicates MCL, posterior oblique ligament, ACL)

McMurray's Test

Tests for: meniscus injuries

Examiner flexes the knee and hip of patient, internally rotates foot and extends leg whilst provided an external force. Then externally rotates foot and repeats but with an internal force

Positive with foot IR: lateral meniscus

Positive with foot ER: medial meniscus

Positive: flexion pain indicates posterior horn of meniscus, extension pain indications anterior meniscus

Bounce Test

Tests for: meniscus (tearing)

Examiner flexes patient's knee and hip, allowing passive extension of the leg

Positive: blockage of full extension/pain may indicate torn meniscus

Patella Glide Test

Tests for: passive patellar mobility

Patient keeps quads relaxed while examiner moves patella medially, laterally, superiorly and inferiorly

Positive: excessive or restricted motion

Patella Tilt Test

Tests for: risk of patellofemoral syndrome

Examiner lifts lateral patella away from patient's leg

Positive: excessive angle of lift (normal angle is 15°)

Patella Grind Test

Tests for: patellofemoral dysfunction

Examiner cups hand around lower femur, pushes patella inferiorly. Patient contracts quads

Positive: pain, crepitus

Patella Aprehension Test

Tests for: patella dislocation

Examiner flexes patient's knee with own leg, then pulls patient's patella laterally

Positive: quad contraction and appearance of apprehension on face of patient

Mediopatella Plica Test

Tests for: patella dislocation

Examiner flexes patient's knee with own leg, then pulls patient's patella medially

Positive: pain with medial glide

Dorsiflexion Manoeuvre

Tests for: separation of distal tib/fib

Examiner passively dorsiflexes patient's foot while stabilising their leg with other hand

Positive: reproduction of pain

Fibular Translation Test

Tests for: syndesmotic ankle sprain (issue with syndesmosis)

Examiner applies AP force on the fibula at level of the syndesmosis

Positive: pain or excessive motion

Anterior Drawer Test

Tests for: instability of the ATFL

Examiner grasps heel of supine patient and gently pulls heel forward

Positive: excessive anterior displacement

Dimple sign in front of the lateral malleolus may appear

Calcaneal Tilt Test

Tests for: ligamentous instability

Examiner grasps calcaneus in both hands and inverts the foot

Positive: excessive movement, pain

Talar Tilt and Rock

Tests for: stability of calcaneofibular ligament

Examiner grasps and moves foot into add/abd. Then distracts foot and moves DF/PF

Positive: pain or hypermobility

Thompson's Test

Tests for: achillies tendon rupture

Examiner squeezes the calf of prone patient, observing for plantar flexion

Positive: no plantar flexion

Sign of the Buttock

Tests for: ischial bursitis, neoplasm, buttock abscess and hip pathology

Examiner performs SLR and when reaching limitation, flexes the patient's knees, observing for greater hip flexion

Positive: hip flexion not increasing, indicates lesion is not sciatic nerve or hamstrings

Anterior Shear/Sagittal Stress-Test

Tests for: integrity of ligaments and capsular structures in Cx

Examiner applies anterior force to each Cx SP, feeling for stretch and an abrupt stop

Positive: nystagmus, nausea, lump in throat

Distraction Test

Tests for: radicular symptom alleviation

Examiner lifts patients head, applying traction to Cx

Positive: pain being alleviated, indicating pressured nerve roots

Straight Leg Raise indication

Neural tension

Cross Straight Leg Raise indication

Rules in disc herniation

Hawkins-Kennedy Test

Tests for: supraspinatus tendinitis or impingement

Examiner passively flexes patient's shoulder and elbow to 90°, applies internal rotation forcefully

Positive: pain

Drop-arm Test

Tests for: supraspinatus

Patient slowly lowers arms to waist

Positive: sudden uncontrolled drop of the arm

Subscapularis Lift-off Test

Tests for: subscapularis weakness

Patient places hand on back against lumbar spine, then lifts hand back as far as possible

Positive: unable to lift or maintain lift

Belly Press Test

Tests for: subscapularis weakness

Patient places hand on belly, keeps elbow level with hand. Examiner then places their hand in between patients hand and belly. Patient presses down firmly

Positive: inability to press, dropping of the elbow, flexing the wrist

Anterior Slide Test

Tests for: slap lesion

Patients puts both hands on hips and examiner axially loads the GH joints one at a time

Positive: pain with motion

Tinel's Sign of the Elbow

Tests for: nerve compression, neuroma

Examiner taps over ulnar nerve in groove between olecranon and medial epicondyle

Positive: tingling in hand

Tingles distal to compression is common entrapment

Wrist and Hand deviations

Both TFL test and Finklestein's deviate to the ulna

Long Sitting Test

Differentiates functional verses anatomical leg length

If patient cannot rise symmetrically, indicates pelvis dysfunction or rotation

Sign of the Buttock

If hip flexion is not increased when knee is flexed, the lesion is in the buttock and not the sciatic nerve or hamstring

Positive could indicate ischial bursitis, neoplasm, abscess, hip joint dysfunction

Ely's Test

Tests for: rectus femoris tightness

Examiner passively flexes the knee of prone patients, as far as possible

Positive: hip flexing

Apley's Compression and Distraction

Positive: pain reproduced during compression and alleived during distraction, clicking or popping

Pain on distraction only may indicate ligamentous lesion

Patella Grind

Tests for: patellofemoral dysfunction

Positive: clicking, pain, crepitus