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23 Cards in this Set

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Isomers

Different compounds that have the same molecular formula


Also known as isomeric compounds

Constitutional (structural) isomers

Isomers that differ in the connectivity of their atoms

Substitutive nomenclature

The name of the most widely applied system in use today

First Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

The unbranched alkanes are named according to the number of carbons

Second Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

For alkanes containing branched carbon chains, determine the principle chain

Principal chain

The longest continuous carbon chain in the molecule

Third Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

If two or more chains within a structure have the same length, choose as the principal chain the one with the greater number of branches

Fourth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

Number the carbons of the principal chain consecutively from one end to the other in the direction that gives lower number to the first branching point

Fifth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

Name each branch and identify the carbon number of the principal chain at which it occurs.

Substituents

This is the name for branching groups in general

Alkyl groups

Substituents derived from alkanes

Sixth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

Construct the name by writing the carbon number of the principal chain at which the substituent occurs, a hyphen, the name of the branch, and the name of the alkane corresponding to the principal chain

Seventh Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

If the principal chain contains multiple substituent groups, each substituent receives its own number. The prefixes di, tri, tetra, and so on, are used to indicate the number of identical substituents

Eighth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

If substituent groups occur at more than one carbon of the principal chain, alternative numbering schemes are compared number by number, and the one is chosen that gives the smaller number at the first point of difference

Ninth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

Substituent groups are cited in alphabetical order in the name regardless of their location in the principal chain. The numerical prefixes di, tri, and so on, as well as the hyphenated prefixes tert- and sec-, are ignored in alphabetizing, but the prefixes iso, neo, and cyclo are considered in alphabetizing substituent groups

Tenth Rule of Substitutive Nomenclature of Alkanes

If the numbering of different groups is not resolved by the other rules, the first-cited group receives the lowest number

Primary carbon

A carbon that is bonded to one other carbon

Secondary carbon

A carbon that is bonded to two other carbons

Tertiary carbon

A carbon that is bonded to 3 other carbons

Quaternary carbon

A carbon bonded to 4 other carbons

Primary hydrogen

A hydrogen that is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to only one other carbon

Secondary hydrogen

A hydrogen that is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to two other carbons

Tertiary hydrogen

A hydrogen that is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to 3 other carbons