Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ORGANELLES
a specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
vacuoles, lysosomes and cytoskeleton
Organelles that store, clean up, and support
VACUOLES
the cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates. It is a large membrane sac. The pressure of the large vacuole makes the cell firm and lets the plant hold up heavy parts, such as leaves and flowers. Every factory needs a place to store things.
Vesicle
nearly all eukaryotic cells have much smaller membrane sacs called vesicles. Vesicles store and move materials between organelles as well as to and from the outside of the cell.
LYOSOSOME
(mainly animal cells) lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes that break down lipids, sugars, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. Lysosomes also help break down organelles that are no longer useful. They carry out the important job of removing junk that might otherwise pile up in the cell. A factory needs to be kept clean and organized in order to run efficiently.
CYTOSKELETON
Eukaryotic cells get their shape from a web of proteins known as the cytoskeleton. These parts are also like conveyor belts in a factoryand is involved in movement. A cytoskeleton is like a factory building that has strong beams and columns that hold up its walls and roof.The cytoskeleton includes two types of protein filaments called microfilaments and microtubules.
Microfilaments
microfilaments are threadlike structures make up of a protein called actin. In some cells they form an internal flexible web. This web supports the cell
Microtubules:
are like thin, hollow pipes. Microtubules help the cell keep its shape. Microtubules are also important in cell division
RIBOSOMES

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM SYSTEM

GOLGI APPARATUS
Organelles that assist with building Proteins
RIBOSOMES
Proteins are made on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small units of RNA and protein found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Ribosomes make proteins by following coded directions that come from DNA. Each ribosome is like a factory worker that makes proteins on orders that come from its DNA “boss” Many ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm. Others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM SYSTEM
'ER' is a membrane system where lipid parts of the cell membrane are put together. Proteins and other materials that are shipped from the cell are also put together on the ER. There are two types of ER: rough and smooth.
Rough ER:
Proteins are made on the rough endoplasmic reticulum or rough ER…the ribosomes on its surface make it bumpy thus ‘rough’. Newly made proteins leave these ribosomes and enter the rough ER. Enzymes inside the rough ER make changes to some of the proteins. Some proteins made on the rough ER will leave the cell.
Smooth ER
the other part of the ER is known as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, or smooth ER. It is called ‘smooth’ because there are no ribosomes on its surface. In many cells, the smooth ER has groups of enzymes that do special tasks. They make membrane lipids and get rid of toxins, such as drugs. Liver cells have large amounts of smooth ER.
GOLGI APPARATUS
In eukaryotic cells, proteins made on the rough ER move next into an organelle called the Golgi apparatus. This organelle looks like a stack of flat membrane sacs. It is like the”shipping station” of the cell. Proteins have molecular ‘address tags’ that point out where they need to go. The ER ‘reads’ these tags and bundles the proteins into tiny vesicles. The vesicles bud from the ER and carry the proteins to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus changes, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the ER.
CHLOROPLAST
MITOCHONDRIA
Organelles that Capture and Release Energy
CHLOROPLAST
are like solar power plants. They take the energy from sunlight and change it into energy stored in food: photosynthesis. Two membranes surround chloroplasts. Inside the chloroplasts are large stacks of membranes called thylakoids. These hold the green pigment chlorophyll. Chloroplast is an organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts in into chemical energy.
MITOCHONDRIA
nearly all eukaryotic cells, including plant cells, have mitochondria. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell. Mitochondria change the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are easier for the cell to use. Cellular respiration takes place in mitochondria. Like chloroplasts, mitochondria are surrounded by two membranes; an outer and an inner. The inner membrane is much larger than the outer one. It is folded up inside the organelle.