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87 Cards in this Set

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The estimation of the hardware requirements necessary to process a workload within specified parameters is referred to as?
computer sizing
What are the Parameters necessary to process a workload referred to?
Service Level Agreements
usually deal with the maximum amount of time allocated to process each workload type.
What type of requirements does computer sizing estimate?
What must be defined before you can make computer sizing decisions?
What Server hardware addition would be needed to decrease Oracle Transaction time?
Buying more Disks
What's most frequently needed to reduce Oracle 8 processor utilization?
The performance study of hardware and software resource consumption on an existing system to prepare for the growth of that system's workload is referred to as?
Capacity Planning
What is ther term used for projecting Normal growth of CPU utilization; Disk Usage; Memory usage?
Capacity planning studies
3 words. Ends with "studies"
What are capacity-planning studies established to maintain?
Service level agreements
Why would the activities of specific users be profiled during a capacity-planning study?
To predict resource consumption
A database server performs only database functions. In terms of workload, it performs only?
What are the 2 main types of Transactions?
online transaction processing (OLTP) and decision support.
This transaction type is constantly updating the database based on the most current information available so the next user can rely on that information being the most current.
What's the first category of info gathered in the interview process?
concurrent users
What's the second category of info gathered in the interview process?
The number of transactions expected to be processed
what's the 3rd type of info gathered in the interview process?
what time range these transactions are expected to be processed
what's the 4th type of info gathered in the interview process?
Whether this time range is your peak-utilization period
generally used when you cannot define the peak-utilization period.
steady-state processing
The other philosophy of sizing an OLTP or any other system
refers to a portion of system processing power left in reserve to accommodate heavier workload periods
reserve capacity
This theory states that utilization directly affects the queues and these queues are directly related to response time .
knee of the curve
the point at which you go from linear growth to exponential growth
At what point of utilization do queues begin to grow exponentially in length?
What principle should you consider when selecting the number of CPU's your system will require?
Knee of the Curve
What is the knee of the curve % for disks?
This percentage applies to the size and I/O capability of the disk drive in question.
What can be minimized by adhering to the knee of the curve principle as applied to disks?
Response times
If a user process needs a data record or a system needs a code page and it is found in memory, this is called a
Logical I/O
Also referred to as a memory read
This occurs when the system or a user function determines that certain information that it must process is not in memory?
page fault
When the system or user function retrieves the data from physical disk, replacing data currently in memory it is referred to as?
physical I/O
Retrieval time for the data found in memory is rated in?
millionths of seconds
retrieval time for the data found on disk is rated in?
thousandths of seconds (much longer than memory).
If a user process needs a data record or a system needs a code page and it is NOT found in memory, what normal system function occurs?
page fault
Where does the system retrieve information from during a logical I/O?
When the next program code address is not in memory. The system must go to the disk drive to retrieve it. This is called?
code page fault
This generates a one-way transfer from disk to memory.
This two-step page fault occurs when a user process requests a data record that is not in memory, and the data page currently in memory has been modified
page fault swap
When the data page current in memory has been modified, it's called?
dirty data page
Which type of page fault causes the most damage to response time?
Page fault swaps
What principle is used in the calculation of minimum memory?
page fault principle
This type of system is generally used to provide information to management so decisions can be made about issues such as business growth, levels of stock on hand
Decision Support System
also referred to as DSS
What is most important in DSS Systems
minimize process request time
With a DSS system, keeping processor utilization under 75% is less important
In the OLTP system, the rate of the throughput of transactions is commonly measured in
tps or tpm
With DSS, throughput is usually measured in?
This system can be 1 TB in size and Measures throughput in QPH
This system measures throughput in TPM and must have 75% processor utilization?
3 factors for determining cpu and memory requirements are?
number of users, transaction type and OS
To size a database server you need to know which 2 things?
number of concurrent users and number of transaction i/o user requests will generate
When calculating the proper amount of memory for your system, the person performing the sizing must take into account?
desirable cache-hit rate and page faulting
What information do you need to size a database server?
Number of concurrent user connections and number of transaction I/Os
Oracle 8 uses how much memory for each user connected?
What is the memory usage for Oracle on Windows NT?
Oracle 8 database executable used how much memory?
What information needed to size a database server is indicative only to Oracle databases?
size of SGA
It provides for variable cache sizes, allowing for high cache-hit rates and high-speed processing.
What are SGA's 3 main facets that should be considered for determining Oracle 8 memory needs?
shared pool size, log buffer size and database buffer size
SGA shared pool area consists of these 2 sub areas?
library cache and dictionary cache
The shared pool contains such things as stored procedures, stored functions, and SQL statements.
contains procedures that are internally formatted (parsed) and are commonly used by the system
library cache
The effect that you, the system administrator or performance technician, want is for a procedure to be parsed once, but used multiple times.
This cache contains the most frequent requests pertaining to the database.
dictionary cache
A validation of access privileges is an example of this type of request.
Shared pool memory size for a)<44 users, b)44-95 users, c)95+ users
a)3.5mb, b)6mb, c)9mb
What does the dictionary cache contain?
database requests
the second part of the SGA that determines the size of memory and holds information about the write activity taking place.
log buffer area
contains information showing the changes that have been made to the database
recommended log buffer size for a)<44, b)44-95, c)95+
a)8,192bytes, b)32,768bytes, c)163,840bytes
When the log buffer fills up, this process writes the contents of the buffer to the redo log files associated with the database.
If this buffer is too small, this process activates more often, thus slowing the performance of your system because of the write activity to the files
This SGA area is the cache area of your system. All the data that is processed by your system will pass through this area.
database buffer
What size does the calculation for log buffer size relate to?
Concurrent user community
Within what file does the parameter DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS exist?
suggests the values that are a recommended starting point for the DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameters.
refers to the quantity of database buffers that this system will have?
specified in the initorcl.ora file
refers to the size that each block will be
specified in the initorcl.ora file
Which two things increase when a cache area is too small?
occurrence of physical i/o's and response time.
What increases relative to how high the DB_BLOCK_BUFFER parameter is set?
transaction completions
The target cache-hit rate for your system should be as close to what percent?
What do you need to calculate once you know how to set DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS properly?
These two scripts may use to retrieve additional information needed to calculate the target cache-hit rate. script a) before performing test run and b) after test run.
a)utlbstat.sql and b)utlestat.sql
What script is used to calculate the target cache-hit rate?
What does understanding the transaction anatomy help calculate?
CPU utilization
allow the system to split the access of the mirrored drives in two.
split seaks
This greatly accelerates the time it takes to locate the desired data and thereby reduces transaction response time.
how to determine i/o for RAID 1?
How to determine RAID 5 I/O total?
RAID 5 Trans I/O=(READS_PER_TRANS+(WRITES_PER_TRANS*2 for reads))+(WRITES_PER_TRANS*2 for writes)
What must be calculated before figuring anticipated CPU utilization?
total reads
What type of reads involve more intervention by the CPU?
allows a large query to be broken into segments based and to hit the database simultaneously, thus expediting processing.
Parallel Query
Approximately how many seconds does it take to write a block from memory to disk?
What percentage rate should the number of proposed CPUs keep TOTAL_CPU_UTILIZATION below?
What order should these be in to keep cpu utilization under 75% 1)Calculate Total Writes 2)Calculate Transaction Utilization 3)Calculate CPU Write Time
What sizing option is available on a DSS system utilizing multiple CPU's?
parallel query
what is the disk usage percentage when sizing the disk subsystem?
What does OS_ORACLE_DISK*RAID_FACTOR determine
Number of disk drives
what raid level is recommended for OS and Oracle Database?
Raid 1
you will want the fastest possible recovery for the operating system and the Oracle executable.
what RAID level is recommended for the database drives?
What kind of information is kept on log disk drives?
Audit Trails
What variable is extremely important when calculating the number of log disk drives?
Number of writes-per-second