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37 Cards in this Set

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Is a Widely Used Method for Sequencing and Assembling Entire Genomes

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing

Analyzes and Compares Genomes from Different Organisms

Comparative Genomics

also called environmental genomics, is the use of whole-genome shotgun approaches to sequence genomes from entire communities of microbes in environmental samples of water, air, and soil.

Metagenomics

is the identification, characterization, and quantitative analysis of all proteins encoded by the genome of a cell, tissue, or organism.

Proteomics

incorporates data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and other areas of biology as well as engineering applications to further elucidate components of interacting pathways and the interrelationships of molecules.

Systems Biology

is the study of gene functions based on the resulting RNAs or possible proteins they encode as well as regulatory elements.

Functional Genomics

the study of genomes, allows the sequencing of entire genomes.

Genomics

is the complete set of DNA in a single cell of an organism.

The genome

Structural genomics focuses on sequencing genomes and analyzing nucleotide sequences to identify genes and other important sequences such as.......

gene-regulatory elements

The overlapping fragments are adjoining segments that collectively form one continuous DNA molecule within a chromosome and are called

contigs

identifies overlapping sequences, allowing scientists to reconstruct their order in a chromosome.

Alignment

uses computer-based approaches to organize, share, and analyze data related to – gene structure. – gene sequence and expression. – protein structure and function.

Bioinformatics

Each sequence deposited in GenBank receives

an accession number

is the process of identifying – genes – their regulatory sequences – their functions

Annotation

is a software application used to compare a segment of genomic DNA to sequences throughout the major databases and to identify portions that align with or are the same as existing sequences.

BLAST

BLAST searches calculate .....................determined by the sum of identical matches between aligned sequences divided by the total number of bases aligned.

similarity score

found in protein- coding genes, are sequences of triplet nucleotides that, after transcription and mRNA splicing, are translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.

ORF

Homologous genes in the same species are called ..........(alpha and beta globin subunits in humans).

paralogs

Homologous genes from different species thought to have descended from a common ancestor are called ..........(Mouse and human beta-globin genes).

orthologs

ion channels, membrane-spanning regions, secretion, and export signals are considered as

Protein domains

helix-turn-helix, leucine zipper, or zinc finger motifs are considered as

Motifs

was a coordinated international effort to sequence and identify all the genes of the human genome.

Human Genome Project

a privately funded human genome project, was to use whole-genome shotgun sequencing and computer-automated high-throughput DNA sequencers.

Celera Genomics

The number of genes is much lower than the number of predicated protein in part because many genes code for multiple proteins through

alternative splicing

Single base changes in the genome – Many associated with disease conditions – Ex. Sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis

SNPs

Segments of DNA that are duplicated or deleted

CNVs

is a new field that focuses on understanding the interactions between diet and genes.

Nutrigenomics

uses small amounts of ancient DNA from bone and other tissue.

Stone-age genomics

compares the genomes of different organisms in order to answer questions about genetics and other aspects of biology.

Comparative genomics

Gene density is higher in prokaryotes
(true or false)

True

a small amount of a bacterial genome is noncoding DNA

Introns

A group of related multigene families is called a

superfamily

or global analysis of gene expression studies the expression of genes by a genome
(qualitatively & quantitatively)

Transcriptome

consist of glass microscope slides onto which single-stranded DNA molecules are attached using a high-speed robotic arm called an arrayer.

gene chips

Isolated proteins are loaded into a polyacrylamide tube gel and separated by

isoelectric focusing

are designed around the same basic concept as microarrays (gene chips) and are often constructed with antibodies that recognize and bind to different proteins.

Protein microarrays

describes the whole set of molecular interacting components of a cell

Interactome