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21 Cards in this Set

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Draw mechanism to add a Nuc to a benzene with Br and Fe

One of the Br from Br2 attacks Fe from FeBr on bond from the benzene attacks one Br and sigma complex appears. Then a Base removes an H to restore a double bond

How can you clorinate a benzene?

Cl2 and AlCl3

how can you add SO3H to benzene?

fuming and H2SO4 in dilute H2SO4 it goes backwards

draw mechanism for nitration of benzene

HNO3 and H2SO4 react to make NO2 ion which is attacked by double bond that creates a sigma complex and the H is removed later

How do you alkylate a benzene?

Cl-R and AlCl3 (remember that there is a + charge in a secondary not primary carbon it moves)

Rules for alkylation of benzene? (friedel crafts)

secondary carbocataion form


R connected to Cl needs to be sp3


Multiple alylation occur

Draw mechanism to add Acyl group to benzene (O=c-R)

acyl has a Cl AlCl3 helps it get more electrophilic then the double bond attacks the acyl sigma formed and H leaves

How to alkylation in a primary position to benzene?

use acyl with R group then Zn[Hg]/HCl and heat to remove the ketone

Reagents to convert NO2 to NH2?

Zn, HCl

Which groups are orto para directors?

e donating


things with lone pairs > things with lone pairs and e withdrawing > alkyls

Which groups are meta directors?

things with double and triple bonds a C with 3 X

What justifies selectivity?

The resonance produced in the sigma complex depending on the director

Halogens are an exception where do they direct?

o and p but they are deactivators

What does it mean that meta directors are deactivators?

they prevent EAS

Why is para more common than ortho?

because of sterics

what is used as a blocking group?

sulfonation fumming and H2So4

Draw mechanism of SnAr

what is needed for an SNar

strong e withdrawing group


orto or para leaving group

Draw mechanism for aromatic electrophilic substitution

double bond in aromatic ring attacks E sigma forms until H next to attached E is removed by a base

Draw mechanims for nuc aromatic substitution

electron withdrawing group and leaving group are needed. Nuc attacks C under leaving the charge is hold in the e wihdrawing then leaving group leaves

Draw Elimination addition mechanism

leaving group is needed. Nuc removes H next to leaving. This forces leaving to leave and makes a triple bond in benzene. A Nuc attacks carbon in triple forcing a pair of electrons to stay and then attack an H