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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do anemometers gauge?
wind speeds
What do satellites show?
for viewing large weather systems on a worldwide scale
forecasters can see weather across the whole globe
they have sensors that show cloud movements and patterns and one the reads temperatures
Name the two types of sensors the stellite uses and describe each
1. imager - can only be used during daylight because it captures reflected light to create images. Water reflects very little light, appearing black. Land tends to be gray

2.Sounder. It's an infrared sensor that reads temperatures. The higher the temperature of the object, the more energy it emits. They have be used at night.
What is the disadvantage of the image sensorer?
it can only be used during the day.
What does the Dopplar Radar Measure?
measures reflected sound waves.
With Doplar Radar, when are sound waves reflected back at an increased rate and when are sound waves reflected back at a decreased rate?
increased-if the object they come in contact with is moving toward the radar

decreased-the object is moving away from the radar
What are the four criteria meteorologists much consider when choosing a method?
-experience of the forecaster
-amount of information available to the forecaster
-level of difficulty that the forecastsituation presents
-degree of accuracy or confidence needed in the forecast
which is a the simplest way of producing a forecast?
persistence method
name the forecast method that assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast will not change.
if two inches of rain fell today, it would predict two inches of rain for tomorrow
what does the numerical weather prediction method use to make a forecast?
Name some advantages and disadvantages of using the numerical weather prediction method
-equations used by the models to stimulate the atmosphere are nor precise
-gaps in the initial data
-very few people have access to computer data
-hard for beginning forecasters
-best in forecasting day-to-day changes
what does the trends method assume
predicting the speed and direction for fronts, high and love pressure centers, and areas of clouds and precipitation
What is nowcasting
forecasting only a few hours in the future
what does the climatology method involve
averaging weather statistics over several years to make the forecast.
when does the climatology method work best
when the weather pattern is similiar to that expected at that time of year
what could cause the climatology method to be unreliable
if the weather pattern is unusual for that time of year
how is the analog method used to produce a forecast?
examining today's forecast and looking at a day in the past that was similiar. the forecaster would predict that today's weather would be similiar to that of the past
why is the analog method viewed as more complicated than other ways of forecasting?
it is virtually impossible to find a perfect analog. various weather features rarely align themselves in the same locations as they were in the previous time.
what key surface features must you keep in mind when making a forecast
anticyclone, cyclone, cold, warm, and stationary fronts
what is an anticyclone
air moves away from an anticyclone air must sink from above to replace it. this sinking motion leads to generally fair skies and no precipitation near the high. teperatures are dependent on the laction relative to the high.
what is a cyclone
air converges into a low pressure center which causes air to rise. The rising motion may produce clouds and precipitation. Different precipitation unclude rain and thunderstorms in the summer and fall, and snow during the winter
what is temperature advection
change in temperature caused by movement of air by the wind
describe how snow cover affects the forecast
if there is snow on the ground,some of the sun's energy will be reflected away by the snow, and some of it will be used to melt the snow. this mean there is less energy to heat the earth's surface,the temperatures rise more slowly than with no snow on the ground
how does the earth's surface cool at night
radiating heat off to space
what are the three types of front and the weather associated with each one
stationary=no precipitation
if the skies are cloudy during the day, will the temperatures be higher or lower than those on a sunny day?
don't know yet
what are the two conditions for an increased probabliity of precipitation
the dew point and the corresponding temperature have to be close
when they air temperature at the ground is less than 32F what types of precipitation should be expected?
explain how precipitation begins as snow and can either stay or change to rain as it falls to earth
if there is a thin layer of warm air before the surface, the snow can melt and become rain
describe a mechanism of lifting air
fronts.air from the front typically blows from another side of the wind, causing the air to converge and rise. as it rises, it cools and forms clouds and precipitation.
explain how the variation in dew point can affect the weather
the dew point needs to be close to the corresponding to the temperature so that the air is saturated and precipitation can occur