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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the 2 external structures of the female reproductive system
The 5 internal genitalia of the female reproductive system
fallopian tubes
the 3 female sex hormones
the first phase of the menstrual cycle
Menstural phase
the second phase of the menstrual cycle
proliferative phase
third phase of the menstrual cycle
secretory phase
fourth phase of the menstrual cycle
ischemic phase
male external genitalia
male internal genitalia
testes and spermatic cord
seminal vesicles/ ejaculatory duct
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands
aging changes in the female include:
thinning of pubic hair
decrease size external genitalia
dry, thin vaginal walls
decrease size, internal structures
decrease tone of ________________
breast tissues
aging changes in the male include:
thinning of pubic hair
increase pendulous scrotum
enlarged ____________
management for endometrial cancer includes:
management for cervical cancer includes:
_____________, cryosurgery
management for ovarian cancer includes:
surgical (TAH, BSO)
the medication given for BPH (benign prostate hyperplasia) is
post op care priorities for BPH (benign prostate hyperplasia) is
catheter care
risk for bleeding
urine ouput monitoring
pain management
health teaching/ follow-up care
continuous bladder irrigation
the manifestations for prostate cancer include:
recurrent bladder infections
difficulty urination
screening for prostate cancer includes:
______, PSA, Ultrasound
a side effect from a prostatectomy is ________________ or urinary incontinence
sexual dysfunction
main manifestation for testicular cancer is ______________-
painless enlargement
the diagnosis for testicular cancer includes:
tumor markers (________)
for testicular cancer a orchiectomy, lymph node resections operative concerns include:
prevention of complications r/t _______
pain mangement
psyhosocial issues
teaching/ follow up care
abdominal surgery
primary prevention for breast disorders include the following:
monitoring for clients at risk
(Breast self exam)
with a radical mastectomy care issues include:
2) prevention of complications r/t lymphedema, infection, bleeding hematoma, cellulitis
3) mobility and diet
4) breast reconstruction
pain management
these are highly important in young females, estrogen levels increase with age along with pregnancy.
female sex hormones
onset of 1st menstraul period- ranges from age 8-9 to 16-17
reduction of hormones
sac that protects the testes
suspended in scrotum by spermatic cord
secretes milky fluid that enhances sperm motility
gland that secretes mucous type secretion
bulbourethal glands
assessment includes; establish health _____, identify potential problems, determine need for education/anticipatory guidance
amenorrhea is related to __________
pelvic exam should routinely be done every ________years depending on age, risk factors, starting at age 18
1 to 3 years
type of xray done to look for masses, tumors, cysts, and/or bone changes
hysterosalpingography views what organs
cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes
test that should be done yearly after the age of 40, along with breast self exams
type of endoscopic study that looks at cervical epithelium tissue, vagina and volvus
type of endoscopic study that views the pelvic cavity. helps to detect ectopic pregnancy and any problems with the tubes in the ovaries
diagnostic test for men, level of _____ found in prostate gland
PSA- prostate specific antigen
diagnostic test for men to evaluate fertility
semen exam
__________ of prostate for visualization and diagnosis
diagnostic test used for bioposy of the prostate when increased PSA levels and potential neurologic problems
painful menses, symptoms include pain, bloating, distention, headache, nausea and vomiting, constipation
_________- (prostaglandins) causes smooth muscle to contract in uterus. causes muscle spasm and pain
____________-(underlying problem such as tumor, PID, endometriosis) there is something specific causing the pain
secondary dysmenorrhea
estrogen-progesterone imbalance of, causes ________. will see after tubal ligation. usually age 30-40
PMS- premenstraul syndrome
PMS will see a ________interaction that shows as retention of fluids (sodium retention), swelling, edema
management of ________includes, vitamin B6, eliminate caffeine, aldactone (diuretic) to decrease fluid, progesterone to help relieve psychological symptoms, parlodel to decrease breast tenderness, ane swelling and education and lifestyle changes such as weight reduction, decreased alcohol intake and small frequent meals
________ absence of menses
________ amenorrhea- no period prior to age 16, related to congenital, ovarian disease, pituitary disorder
__________amenorhhea- had period but then stopped for 3-6 months or more, related to underlying condition such as pregnancy, menopause, dietary (athletes) stress
_______= bleeding inbetween. between menses, related to specific cause such as contraceptives, pregnancy, or malignancy
_________- natural process with aging. may be physiological or surgically induced (hysterectomy)
increased ________level- attempt of pituatary gland to stimulate ovaries to produce estrogen
FSH level
________ symptoms- hot flashes, night sweats, palpitations, dizziness, related to decreased levels of estrogen
__________- mucous membranes of vagina become dry, prone to scarring and lesions. sex very painful, urinary changes such as frequency and infections.
atropic vaginitis
muscular skeletal changes seen are __________ (backache, joint pain)
urinary changes seen are ________ in frequency, urinary tract infections
management of ___________- HRT (hormone replacement therapy) alleviate symptoms, decrease risk for osteoporosis, protective of heart
alternative methods- _____ products have estrogen effect- dont take with breastfeeding.
-education and support
soy products
______- prevents osteoporosis, decrease cholesterol, risk for blood clots, hot flashes
_______- pelvic infection involving upper genital tract (beyond the cervix) usually related to untreated bacterial infection, sexually transmitted
PID- pelvic inflammatory disease
causes of ________-
-untreated bacterial infection
-results in pelvic abscess, inflammation, scarring,infertility
-usually sexually transmitted
-increased incidence with IUD (intra uterine device)
signs and symptoms of _________-
fever, chills, nausea and vomiting, seen with advancing infection
-pelvic pain increases with urination and defecation
-purulent vagina discharge
-occassional bleeding
-difficulty getting pregnant
Management of ________- culture cervix, vagina and urethra.
-surgery (laparatomy) or (hysterectomy)
-semi-fowlers position to help decrease drainage
-pain management with sitz baths, analgesics, support, education, IUD use, hygiene practice, good nutrition
_________- tissue that normally lines uterus is located in other sites of the reproductive area.
-family predisposition
-commonly seen in white females in 30's with no children
-mostly confined to pelvic cavity but can be throughout reproductive area
________menstruation- where lining of uterus is shed- some of this tissue is deposited in other parts and starts to grow and cause inflammation and scarring.
-could be spread by lymph system- ovaries most common site for endometriosis.
causes of ______________-
-retrograde menstruation
-tissue spread by lymph vascular system
-misplaced tissue responds to hormonal stimulation and bleeds
-inflammation, scar tissue, adhesions
manifestations- pain prior to and during menses,may see periodic bleeding
management of _________- treatment depends on symptoms, age of the patient, children , extent of disease. hormones can help to inhibit. laser approach to clean up tissue or abdominal hysterectomy
with pregnancy, tissue decreases, tissue also decreases during menopause due to hormonal changes. diagnosed through history and pelvic exam
most frequently occuring tumor of reproductive tract, slow growing, tumors composed of muscle and fibrous connective tissue, increased with approaching menopause, may be estrogen stimulated, fibroids increase with age, 2-3 times greater in African-Americans
Benign uterine tumors
-often asymptomatic related to size, location and number, usually have more than one and are classified by size, location and where they are lying
benign uterine tumors= leiomyomas, fibroids
signs and symptoms-
uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea (painful menses), pelvic pressure, urinary frequency and retention, vaginal discharge
benign uterine tumors
________-most conservative management for benign uterine tumors. involves removing fibroid with removing uterus. may need hysterectomy if increased amounts of fibroids.
_______hysterectomy- removal of uterus and cervix and also can remove tubes and ovaries
________hysterectomy- total along with lymph nodes and upper 1/3 of vagina (usually deals with malignancy- cancer has spread)
most common malginancy of female genital reproductive system, related to pelvic, radiation, reproductive cancer, diabetes, HTN, obesity, hyperestrongism, infertility, abortion, postmenapausal bleeding, good survival rate with early detection.
endometrial uterine cancer
hallmark symptom is abnormal uterine bleeding, especially post-menapausal (no menses for 1 year) can be early sign.
endometrial (uterine) cancer
usually ___________- highly malignant, slow growing, grows with help of vascular blood vessels and lymph system. if invades cervix, muscles of uterus or increases size of uterus or cancer goes outside uterus- prognosis is much worse. will determine treatment
mangement of ________________-
-total abdominal hysterectomy (removal of uterus, tubes and ovaries)
-usually radiation (internal and/or external)
-precancerous= progesterone helps to manage
late stages- tamoxifen (blocks estrogen that causes the growth) and chemotherapy
endometrial (uterine) cancer
_____ cancer- related to variety of risk factors, exact etiology unknown.
risk factors: HPV (human patholone virus) sexually transmitted diseases, history of chronic cervical irritation
-multiple sex partners
-early intercourse, smoking, STD's
-sex partner with history of penile or prostate cancer
cervical cancer
signs and symptoms of __________-
no early symptoms with in situ
late stages- vaginal bleeding(increased douching and intercourse may tend to cause greater frequency of bleeding), watery, dark, foul smelling vaginal discharge, as progresses- bowel and bladder involvement, abdominal pain/pressure (wasting syndrome) look malnourished, anorexic
cervical cancer
management of _____________-
squamous cell type can easily spread through pelvic area, pap smear is primary diagnosis, colposcopy, biopsy, conization(take out piece of tissue for biopsy), cautery or cryosurgery (freezing via scope) early mangement is radiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy or pelvic exenteration because of how cancer has spread
cervical cancer
Vaginal __________- abnormal tube like passage from vagina to bladder. Frequent uti's
__________- descent of bladder
____________- prolapse of urethra
________- protrusion of posterior vaginal wall that supports rectum, difficulty with defecation
_____________- descent of uterus into vaginal canal
vaginal prolapse
____________- various shapes and sizes of devices that are placed in pelvic area to push and hold the organs that are beginning to prolapse. these can be curative and prevent surgery
Benign ______________- enlargement of prostate- common symptoms are urinary problems.
-abnormal increase in # of cells in prostate
-increased contraction of smooth muscle prostatic tissue enlargement
-pathophysiology- not clear, can be related to testosterone, hormonal responses, diet and muscle contraction of prostate and bladder neck
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
primary symptoms of ________-
-bladder outlet obstruction
-urine flow restricted
-back flow
-accumulates in bladder (stays in bladder after urination causing thickening, swelling of urinary wall)
-loss of kidney function
-atrophy or renal cells
BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia)
Finasteride (_________)- slows tissue growth. Blocks conversion of testosterone to decrease hyperplasia that causes enlargement. side effects are erectile dysfunction, decreased PSA and decreased libido which may mask occurrence of prostatic cancer
__________ blocking- relax muscle. drugs such as hytrin, minipress, cardera, flomax (help to relax prostate muscle and relieve pressure- helps to cause more normal urine flow)
surgical treatment for _________-
prostectomy- only part of gland causing obstruction is removed. depends on age and overall health of patient and size of prostate.
TURP- transurethral resection is most common and is done through urethra.
BPH- benign prostatic hyperplasia
Post-op care for BPH-
maintain ____________ irrigation- biggest complication to surgery is bleeding (clotting) prevent complication with irrigation with normal saline for 24 to 48 hours
continous irrigation
secondary side effect after surgery for BPH is
erectile dysfunction
_________cancer- second most common cause of cancer death in US. risk increases with age, BPH not a precursor, family history (increase in African-Americans), hormonal changes, sexually transmitted virus, diet (increased fat, vitamin D deficiency),environmental/occupational (increase in urban areas)increased testosterone levels
foods that decrease prostate are foods that contain __________- such as cooked tomatoes
_________- slow growing, often asymptomatic, early symptoms are difficult, painful and weak urination, bladder infections, hematuria
Prostate cancer
Diagnosis of _____________ is
increase PSA (prostate specific antigen)
abnormal rectal exam- will feel hard nodule and uneven surface of the prostate
Prostate cancer
mangement for ________cancer includes:
aggressive treatment
radical prostatectomy- removing entire gland, vas deferens, lymph nodes and bladder neck.
cryosurgery ablation- freezing to remove tumor, confined to prostate itself, good prognosis
care of patient is similar to BPH
sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence are side effects from surgery
prostate cancer
_______cancer- most common, serious, solid tumor affecting men age 15-35
etioloy is unknown, DES taken during pregnancy, undescended testes, family history (3 times higher in Jews)
Testicular cancer
_______cancer manifestations:
-painless enlargement- described as dragging heavy sensation
-testis do not transilluminate
-metastasis occurs thru lymphatics
-c/o back pain, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bowel/bladder changes, respiratory symptoms
managment of ________cancer-
usually unilateral
radical ordniectomy
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
testicular cancer
Testicular _________- (twisting)
-common in children
-goes along with herniation
________- secondary to infection, STD, mumps , trauma
________- infection in urethra, prostate or bladder related to catheter, surgery or STD
________- problem with lymph drainage, swelling and collection of fluid
________- enlarged veins that cause engorgement, pain and discomfort
Penile (______,phimosis)-seen more in children, can be congenital or caused by injury or inflammation.
dietary fat and _______fat increase risk of cancer. alcohol increases cancer risks, the more alcohol the more risk, limit alcohol intake to 1 drink or less per day
saturated fat
____ foods bind to estrogen receptors and block from entering, decrease risk for cancer.
eat broccoli, fruits and vegetables to decrease risk
_____cancer is most common malignancy in women, cause is unknown. 70% of women have no risk factors.
known risk factors include:
age (at age 85 risk is 1 out of 8) mortality less in caucasion and increased in african-americans, early menarche or late menopause,no children or children after age 30,HRT, family history, diet,
Breast cancer
alcohol alters ________metabolism, and _______ embeds in fat tissue and this increases level in obese patients. caffeine consumption related to fibrocystic disease
Tomoxifen, Raloxifene (______) drugs that high risk patients are put on to decrease chance of cancer
_________- drug with chemo preventive properties, also helps with osteoporosis and cholesterol levels. can cause blood clots
_______mastectomy- with strong family history or cancer in other breasts or presence of BRCA I and II gene
lifestyle changes include decrease fat intake, decrease alcohol consumption, and increase exercise to decrease fat storage
screening mammograms biggest prevention of breast cancer. Age for baseline is ____. females younger than this age their breast tissue is thicker and may have normal fibrostitic changes along with menstrual cycle.
age 40
breast cancer typically begins in ________ epithial cells and spread via lymphatic system.75% of all breast cancer extends to axillary nodes and then spreads to lung, liver, bone and brain.
ductal-lobular epithelial cells
most primary breast tumors originate in upper outer quadrant also called the _____________.
tail of spence
__________in situ- cells confined to ductal, lobular units with permeation of basement membrane.
inflammatory- characterized by skin redness and induration (rapid growing, poor prognosis) Nipple may be ______, skin very hard and dry. looks like theres a problem with inflammation.
most breast cancers are ______, non-tender, hard, irregulary shaped, non-mobile. Edema-sign of malignancy. any drainage, nipple discharge or swelling is sign of malignancy and advanced stage.
mangement for breast cancer-
carcinoma in situ- _______ incision
stage I or II breast cancer- management will be _________ preserving procedures.
tumors in nipple area that are large in size and extent- radiation risk, _________.
medical management for breast cancer is radiation by beam or implants for _____ weeks
following remission of breast cancer- patient needs to have follow up for rest of their life, continue with BSE and every ____ months by MD.
3-6 months
80% of all local recurrences of breast cancer will happen within first ____ years, these years are the most critical
5 years
_______ breast disease- occurs in younger 20-40 year olds. related to hormonal imbalances. usually disappears at menopause. is usually round, fluid filled (not irregular), movable
_________- related to caffeine consumption
fibro_______- can be aspirated and fluid removed
anything irregular and fixed is probably____________.
anything round and movable is usually
____________ breast cancer
with men, breast cancer usually involves older men over age ____
with men, breast cancer is identified at advanced stage and is usually around _______ area, looks inflammed and swollen.