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61 Cards in this Set

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"Faith Works"

James date, reason

mid-40's, first NT book:

-"contradiction" w/Paul seems unlikely after the Jerusalem conference

-simpler church structure than other books

-term for church means synagogue

-very rudimentary ecclesiology

James occasion

Concerned about the faith of the people he writes to. He's writing to suffering people: "The 12 tribes scattered amongst the nations"

James purpose

to encourage them to work out their faith with deeds that exemplify salvation

james authorship

not explicitly stated. we know author:

-had strong understanding of OT

-was a man of authority in the church

-probably had a gift of teaching

james authorship majority position

most conservative scholars give it to James, J's brother

-other possibility is James son of Zebedee. But he died in AD 44, too early.

What we know about James, brother of J

-didn't accept J while he lived

-had a private appearance from J

-Pillar of the Jerusalem church

-Had a bro named Jude

-Martyred in AD 62

-"Camel Knees" from praying

James - reasons not quickly accepted into canon

-more practical than theological

-lacked strong Christology

-no mention of the Holy Spirit


-'conflict' re: justification

-Very Jewish feel

James 1 - responding to trials

Key to maturity in Christian life.

-respond with joy to build endurance

-we need wisdom during trials; promised if we ask in faith. Don't be ship in storm

-poverty and riches both have struggles

-blessings for those that persevere

James 1 - source of temptation

God =/= responsible for temptations

G is the source of all good things

James passages

-quick to listen, slow to speak

-don't be like man in mirror

-keep reign on tongue

-pure religion widows/orphans

-resist the devil, he'll flee...draw near to God...

-prayer of a righteous man does much

James 2

warning against favoritism

relationship between faith and works


The nature of saving faith: works, or faith?

No such thing as a merely creedal faith.

saving faith is more than words or assent.

assurance of salvation is tied to obedience

james 3

control of the tongue/wisdom

james 4

worldliness - false wisdom being worked out

james 5

warnings against the rich

council for Christian living:

-patience in waiting for the Lord

-Honesty in speech

-prayerfulness in all circumstances

-diligence in reaching backsliders

-pray always

I Peter

"Help for a hurting pilgrim people"

I Peter date

AD 62/63 Rome, right after P's release (would have mentioned if he was there)

I Peter authorship

critics discount authenticity on basis of elevated Greek usage.

I Peter ocassion

Peter learned that the provinces were experiencing localized persecution

I Peter purpose

help them know how to suffer well for their faith. They can, because Jesus suffered for them.

I Peter major themes

-Exhortations to obedient living

-obligations of a pilgrim people

-encouragement to a suffering people

I Peter passages

-husbands treat wives well, as weaker in physical only. If you don't, prayers won't be answered.

-gospel was preached in hell - probably J preaching victory, not Nephalim or a second chance

-be on guard, devil is like lion

1 Peter - how we embrace suffering

How we embrace suffering determines ALL:

-embrace it

-respond to it

-it's a hard road, but a better road

II Peter

"Beware of False Teachers"

II Peter date

65/66, just before he was killed. From Rome. Perhaps as a 'final testament'

II Peter occasion

to warn the churches against false teachers

II Peter purpose

to warn against false teachers, especially those denying the Parousia

II Peter authorship

most contested in NT. Language is much rougher than I Peter. But if I Peter used scribe, explainable. Also could match a different oriental style of rhetoric

II Peter 1, 2, 3

I-Exhortation to spiritual maturity: the certainty of Parousia

2-Warning against false teachers: denial of parousia brings judgement

3-Day of the lord is coming: delay of parousia is explained

II Peter marks of false teachers


-denial of lordship of christ



-deny parousia/final judgement

-empty teaching leads to slavery

II Peter has many similarities with:



"Fight for the Faith"

Jude audience

not clearly listed, probably a circular letter

Jude occasion

wanted to write about salvation, but had to talk about this instead. Certain people were perverting God's grace.

Jude purpose

to defend the faith and protect the church:

-encourage sound doctrine

-encourage believers to contend for the faith

-assure believers of their eternal security in Christ

Jude style

-groups of 3

-very similar to 2 peter

Jude pseudopigraphical citations

1 Enoch
Assumption of Moses

Johannine Epistles

No name given. But stylistically, resemble each other, and Gospel of John. And 1J claims to have seen him.

Johannine dates


written to combat misuse of gospel of John, written in 80-85. Tradition is written for churches around Ephesus

Johannine occasion

wanted to counteract abuse of the fourth gospel by the Gnostics/secessionists

1 john

'tests of life' / 'countering the secessionists'

1 john themes

-fullness of joy

-test the spirits

-assurance of salvation/eternal life

1 john tests of salvation

-correct christology/Jesus test

-love for brethren/social test

-obedient life/moral test

1 john salvation

-it's possible to have salvation w/out assurance

-it's possible to have assurance w/out salvation

2 john

'exhortations to the elect lady'

'secessionists attack from the outside'

2 john notes

-2nd shortest book in NT

-hortatory/exhortation discourse

-'elect lady' = local church

-don't support false teachers

2 john exhortations

-walk in the truth

-love one another

-be on guard against false teachers

3 John

"commendations and rebukes'

'secessionists take over from the inside?'

3 john notes

shortest book in NT

3 characters:

-Gaius: recipient. supports ministers.

-Diotrephes: likes to be first. controlling church, keeping real believers out

-Demetrius - everyone knows he's good

The Revelation

God is in control of history

There are only two possible outcomes to life

Revelation authorship

Critics argue based on style/vocab; different than other Johannine books. But not THAT different, and the form follows function.

revelation date

mid 90's, from Patmos

during Domitianic persecution

audience = 7 churches in Asia Minor

revelation patristic objection

Dionysus, Bishop of Alexandria

revelation hermeneutic

symbols must be understood in a way that the original audience would have understood

7=complete, perfect

12=all of Israel/church

churches were real; find meaning through their eyes, not in secret codes only discernible to people living at the end of time

revelation escalation of signs





3 major interpretive debates about Revelation

-millennial grid (when is 1000 year reign)


-historical perspective (of events)

reasons to study Revelation

-shows god's sovereignty


-teaching/unveiling of Jesus

-teaches about Holy Spirit

-understand power, attraction of evil

-heavenly worship is model for us

-reminds of ultimate victory over evil


millennial perspectives

-pre: Christ comes back before reign and establishes kingdom.

disp = Christ back in 2 stages

historical = 1 stage, after tribulation

-post: Christ back after progressively christianized

-a: 1000 year reign is symbolic, probably right now since gospel is being proclaimed


Rapture/Tribulation perspectives

-post: we meet J as he comes down

-pre: secret rap (disp. pre-mil)

-mid: church up halfway through trib

-pre wrath: mid, but emphasis is on before God's wrath is poured out


Historical/Interpretive Approaches

-preterist/contemporary historical: devalues end-time aspects

-historicist/continuous historical: sweep from Jesus to end times

-idealist/timeless symbolic: timeless principles of good/evil, not history

-extreme futurist/eschatological: almost all hasn't happened

-modified futurist/eclectic: some merit in each. teaches about future, had meaning for original audience, teaches timeless truth to each gen