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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Functions of Left Hemisphere

1. Language


2. Sequence and perform movements


3. Produce written and spoken language


4. Analytical


5. Controlled, logical


6. Mathematical calculations


7. Express positive emotions

Functions of Right Hemisphere

1. Nonverbal processing


2. General, holistic views


3. Artistic abilities


4. Mathematical reasoning


5. Negative emotions


6. Body image awareness


7. Hand-eye coordination



Hippocampus

Responsible for forming and storing new memories for one's personal history

Basal ganglia

Responsible for voluntary movement, regulation of autonomic movement, posture, muslce tone, and control



Basal ganglia disfunction results in?

Parkinson's or huntington's

Amygdala

Emotional and social processing (fear and pleasure)

Thalamus

Processing station for sensory information

Hypothalamus

Regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, sexual behavior

Subthalamus

Regulating movements produced by skeletal muscles

Epithalamus

Secretes melatonin

Midbrain

Relay area for info passing from the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord

Components of the Hindbrain

Cerebellum


pons


medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

Maintains posture and balance

Pons

regulation of respiration

Medulla oblongata

Regulation of respiratoin and heart rate.


Reflex centers for vomiting, couging and sneezing

Components of the Brainstem

midbrain


pons


medulla oblongata

Dura mater

outer most meninges

arachnoid

middle meninge

pia mater

inner most meninge, covers the contours of the brain; forms the choroid plexus

Fasciculus cuneatus

sensory tract for trunk, neck, and upper extremity proprioception, two point discrimination, and vibration

Fasciculus gracilis

Sensory tract for trunk and lower extremity proprioception, two-point discrimination, vibration, and graphesthesia

Spinocerebellar tract (ventral)

sensory tract with ipsilateral subconscious proprioception, tension in muscles, joint sense, posture of the trunk, UE, and LE

Spino-olivary tract

Relays info from cutaneous and proprioceptive organs

Spinoreticular tract

the sensory patheway for the reticular formation that influences levels of consciousness

Spinotectal tract

sensory tract providing afferent info for spinovisual reflexes and assists with movement of eyes and head towards a stimulus

Spinothalamic tract (anterior)

Sensory tract for light touch and pressure

Spinothalamic tract (lateral)

Sensory tract for pain and temperature sensation

Corticospinal tract (anterior)

responsible for ipsilateral voluntary, discrete, and skilled movements

Corticospinal tract (lateral)

responsible for contralateral voluntary fine movement

Reticulospinal tract

responsible for facilitation or inhibition of voluntary and reflex active througgh the influence on alpha and gamma motor neurons

Rubrospinal tract

Responsible for the motor input of gross postural tone, facilitates activity of flexor muscles, inhibits extensor muscles

Tectospinal tract

Responsible for contralateral postural muscle tone associated with auditory/visual stimuli

Vestibulospinal tract

Responsible for ipsilateral gross postural adjustments subsequent to head movements; facilitates activation of extensor muscles; inhibits flexor muscles

Saltatory conduction

an action potential moving along an axon in a jumping fashion from node to node

Reflex Grading 0

No response=always abnormal

Reflex grading 1+

diminished/depress response=may or may not be abnormal

Reflex grading 2+

Normal

Reflex grading 3+

brisk/exaggerated response=may or may not be abnormal

Reflex grading 4+

Very brisk/hyperactive;abnormal response

Biceps Tendon DTR Spinal level

C5-C6

Biceps Tendon DTR Procedure

support elbow in partial flexion, place thumb over tendon at elbow and strike the hammer through the thumb

Brachioradialis Tendon DTR spinal level

C5-C6

Brachioradialis Tendon DTR procedure

Rest hand on lap in sitting with forearm in neutral; strike the radius one to two inches superior to the wrist. Contraction of brachioradialis

Triceps tendon DTR spinal level

C6-C7

Triceps tendon DTR procedure

Support the UE through the humerus and allow the lower portion to hang with elbow flexion, strike the triceps tendon directly above the elbow

Patellar tendon DTR spinal level

L3-L4

Achilles tendon DTR spinal level

S1-S2



Superficial sensation

temperature, light touch, pain

Deep sensation

vibration, kinesthesia, proprioception

Cortical sensation

Bilateral simultaenous stimulation, stereognosis, twopoint discrimination, barognosis

Barognosis

Perceive the weight of different objects in hand

Deep pain

Squeeze the forearm or calf muscle

Graphesthesia

Identify a number or letter drawn on the skin without visual input

Kinesthesia

Identify direction and extent of movement of a joint or body part

Localization

ability to identify the exact location of light touch on the body using a verbal response or gesturing

Stereognosis

Identify an object without sight

Mononeuropathy

An isolated nerve lesion


From trauma or entrapment

Neuroma

Abnormal growth of nerve cells

Peripheral neuropathy

Impairment or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves

Polyneurpathy

Diffuse nerve dysfunction that is symmetrical and typically secondary to pathology and not ttrauma

Neuropraxia


  • Mildest form of nerve injury
  • Nerve conduction is preserve distal and proximal to injury
  • Recovery in 4-6 weeks
  • Pressure injuries are most common

Axonotmesis


  • A more severe grade of injury to a peripheral nerve
  • Reversibble injury
  • Nerve can regenerate distal to the site of the lesion. one mm per day
  • Traction, compression, and crush injuries

Neurotmesis

  • Most severe
  • Everything is damaged
  • Irreversible injury
  • Flaccid paralysis
  • No recovery

Cause of Axillary Nerve Damage

fracture of the neck of the humerus; anterior dislocation of the shoulder

Cause of musculocutaneous

fracture of the clavicle

Cause of radial nerve damage

Compression of nerve in the radial tunnel, fracture of humerus

Cause of Median nerve damage

Compression in the carpal tunnel, pronator teres entrapment

Cause of ulnar nerve damage

Commpression in the cubital tunnel, entrapment in Guyon's canal

Cause of Femoral Nerve Damage

THA, Displaced acetabular fracture, anterior dislocation of the femur, hysterectomy, appendectomy

Cause of Sciatic Nerve Damage

Blunt force trauma to the buttocks, THA, Accidental injection to the nerve

Cause of Obturator Nerve Damage

fixation of a femur fracture, THA

Cause of Peroneal Nerve Damage

Femur, tibia, or fibula fracture. Positioning during surgical procedures

Cause of Tibial Nerve Damage

Tarsal tunnel entrapment, popliteal fossa compression

Cause of Sural Nerve Damage

Fracture of calcaneus or lateral malleolus