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581 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensation of movement of one's body or of objects moving about or spinning
Sensory integrity
is the ability to organize and use sensory information.
awareness of movement
is the physiological readiness of the human system for activity
pt is awake and attentive to normal levels of stimulation
pt appears drowsy and may fall asleep
pt is difficult to arouse from a somnolent state and is frequently confused when awake
pt responds only to strong, generally noxious stimuli and returns to unconscious state when the stimulation is stopped.
Coma/deep coma
pt cannot be aroused by any type of stimulation
is awareness of the environment or responsiveness to a stimulus or task without being distracted by other stimuli.
refers to the pt's awareness of time, person, and place
is defined as the process of knowing and includes both awareness and judgement.
Fund of knowledge
is defined as the sum total of an individual's learning and experience in life.
Calculation ability
assesses foundational mathematical abilities.
inability to calculate
difficulty ion accomplishing calculations
responsible for the superficial sensations
responsible for deep sensations
which respond to mechnical deformation of the receptor
which respond to changes in temperature
which respond to noxious stimuli
which respond to chemical substances
which respond to light within the visible spectrum
Free nerve endings
they r found throughout the body. their stimulation results in perception of pain,temperature,touch,pressure,tickle,and itch sensations.
Hair follicle endings
they are sensitive to mechanical movement and touch.
Merkel's discs
they r located below the epidermis in hairy and glabrous skin.they are sensitive to low-intensity touch, as well as velocity of touch.they r important in both two-point discrimination and localization of touch.
Ruffini endings
located in the deeper layers of the dermis.involved with perception of touch and pressure.
Krause's end-bulb
located in the dermis. perceive touch and pressure.
Meissner's corpuscles
located in the dermis. perceive discriminative touch and the recognition of texture.
Pacinian corpuscles
located in subcutaneous tissue layer of skin. perceive deep touch and vibration.
Muscle spindles
they lie in a parallel arrangement to the muscle fibers. help in position and movement sense and in motor learning.
Golgi tendon organs
located in series at both the proximal and distal tendinous insertions of the muscle. function: 1) monitor tension with the muscle 2) provide protective mechanism
Free nerve endings in muscle
located in fascia of muscle. respond to pain and pressure
Pacinian corpuscles in muscle
respond to vibratory stimuli and deep pressure
Free nerve endings in joints
found in joint capsule and ligaments. respond to pain and crude awareness of joint motion
Ruffini endings in joints
located in joint capsule and ligaments. responsible for the direction and velocity of joint movement.
Paciniform endings in joints
they are found in joint capsule. monitors rapid joint movements.
how to test pain
instrument - safety pin or reshaped paperclip. test - sharp point applied on pt's skin. response - pt asked to verbally indicate site of pain
how to test temperature
instrument - 2 test tubes with stoppers - one filled with warm water (104-113 deg F) and one filled with crushed ice (41 - 50 deg F test - test tubes are randomly placed in contact with the skin area to be tested. response - pt is asked to indicate if stimulus is felt and if warm/cold
how to test light touch
instrument - camel hair brush, piece of cotton test - area to be tested is lightly touched or stroked. response - pt asked to indicate if stimulus is felt.
how to test pressure
instrument - therapist's thumb test - apply firm pressure on skin response - indicate if stimulus is felt
how to test kinesthesia
TEST - joint to be assessed is moved passively through small ROM ; RESPONSE - pt asked to indicate direction of movement verbally, describe direction and ROM
how to test proprioception
TEST - jt to be assessed is moved through small ROM and held static ; RESPONSE - pt asked to describe motion verbally
how to test vibration
INSTRUMENT - tuning fork which vibrates at 128 Hz ; TEST - place base of vibrating fork on bony prominence ; RESPONSE - if intact , pt perceives vibration. pt is also asked if fork is vibrating/nonvibrating
how to test tactile object recognition/stereognosis
INSTRUMENT - items differing in shape and size ; TEST - pt is given an object ; RESPONSE - pt is asked to name the object verbally
how to test tactile localization
TEST - using fingertip therapist touches different skin surfaces ; RESPONSE - pt asked to identify area of stimulation
how to test two-point discrimination
this test is a measure of the smallest distance between two stimuli that can still be perceived as 2 distinct stimuli.TEST - 2 tips of instrument are applied to the skin simultaneously. the 2 tips are gradually brought closer until the stimuli are perceived as one. the smallest distance is measured with ruler. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify the perception of one or 2 stimuli
how to test double simultaneous stimulation (DSS)
TEST - therapist touches 1)identical location on opposite sides of the body, 2) proximally and distaly on opp sides of body 3) proximal and distal location on same side of body RESPONSE - pt states verbally when he perceives a touch stimulus and the number of stimuli felt.
how to test recognition of weight (barognosis)
TEST - place series of different wts of same size on the pt's hand. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify wt of object
how to test traced figure identification/graphesthesia
TEST - a series of letters, numbers or design is traced on the palm of pt's hand. RESPONSE - pt asked to identify the figures verbally
how to test recognition of texture
TEST - items of different textures are palced in pt's hand RESPONSE - pt asked to identify textures
decrease in muscle tone
inability to recognize weight
sensation experienced at a site remote from point of stimulation
pain produced by non-noxious stimulus
complete loss of pain sensibility
loss of sensation
inability to recognize the form and shape of objects by touch
inability to localize a sensation
painful, burning sensations, usually along the distribution of a nerve.
touch sensation experienced as pain
decreased sensitivity to pain
increased sensitivity to pain
increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
decreased sensitivity to sensory stimuli
ability to perceive or to recognize vibratory stimuli
abnormal sensation such as numbness, prickling or tingling, without apparent cause.
inability to perceive heat
inability to perceive sensations of heat or cold
ability to perceive heat and cold sensations, temperature sensibility
increased sensitivity to temperature
decreased temperature sensibility
loss of light touch sensibility
ability to recognize weight
recognition of numbers, letters,or symbols traced on the skin
the ability to recognize the shape of objects by touch
is a decrease in muscle tone
impaired ability to judge the distance or range of a movement
excessive distance or range of a movement;an overestimation of the required motion needed to reach a target object
shortened distance or ROM; an underestimation of the required motion needed to reach a target object
impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements
an involuntary oscillatory movement resulting from alternate contractions of opposing muscle groups
Intention tremor
occurs during voluntary motion of a limb and tends to increase as the limb nears its intended goal or speed is increased.
Postural (static) tremor
back-and-forth oscillatory movements of the body while pt maintains a standing posture
impaired ability to associate muscles together for complex movement;decomposition of movement
movement decomposition
performance of a movement in a sequence of component parts rather than as a single smooth activity
loss of ability to associate muscles together for complex movements
disorder of the motor component of speech disarticulation
Scanning speech
a speech pattern that is slow,and may be slurred,hesitant,with prolonged syllables and inappropriate pauses; the melodic quality of speech is altered
rhythmic,oscillatory movement of the eyes
Check reflex
when application of resistance to an isometric contraction is suddenly removed,the limb will remain in approximately the same position by action of the opposing muscle. with cerebellar involvement the pt is unable to check the motion
Rebound phenomenon
absence of check reflex
generalized muscle weakness associated with cerebellar lesions
abnormally slow movements
increase in muscle tone;results in greater resistance to passive movement
Leadpipe rigidity
is a uniform,constant resistance felt by the examiner as the extremity is moved through a ROM
Cogwheel rigidity
is characterized by a series of brief relaxations or catches as the extremity is passively moved.
is a general term used to describe uncoordinated movement;may influence gait,posture and patterns of movements
Resting tremor
present when involved body segment is at rest;typically dissapears of decreases with purposeful movement
inability to initiate movement;seen in parkinson's disease
involuntary,rapid,irregular,jerky movements;clinical feature of huntington's disease
slow,involuntary,writhing,twisting,wormlike movements;clinical feature of some forms of CP
movement disorder with features of both chorea and athetosis;seen in some forms of CP
sudden,jerky,forceful,wild,flailing motions of one side of the body
abnormally increased muscle activity or movement;restlessness
decreased motor responses ;sluggishness,listlessness
impaired or disordered tonicity;tone fluctuates in an unpredictable manner from low to high
Rhomberg's sign
inability to maintain standing balance when vision is occluded
Motor program
a set of commands that,when initiated,results in the productionof a coordinated movement sequence
Motor plan
an idea or plan for purposeful movement that is made up of several component motor programs
response-produced information received during or after the movement used to monitor output for corrective actions
the sending of signals in advance of movement to ready the sensorimotor systems and allow for anticipatory adjustments in postural acticity
the patterning of body and limb motions relative to the patterning of environmental objects and events
a state of awareness;implies orientation to person,place and time
vegetative state
a continuing and unremitting condition of complete awareness of self and the environment,accompanied by sleep-wake cycles with preservation of hypothalamic and brainstem autonomic functions
Persistane vegetative state
a vegetative state with a duration of one yr or more, the result of severe brain injury or diffuse cerebral hypoxia
Wernicke's aphasia/fluent aphasia
speech that flows smoothly but contains errors,neologisms (nonsense words),paraphasias(misuse of words),and circumlocutions(word substitution)
Broca's aphasia/nonfluent aphasia
speech that is slow and hesitant with limited vocablury and impaired syntax
Declarative memory/explicit memory
the conscious recollection of facts and events
Nondeclarative memory/motor memory
the recall of skills and procedures (nonconscious or implicit memory)
loss of memory
Retrograde amnesia
Amnesia for events that occured before the precipitating trauma
Anterograde amnesia
Amnesia for events that occured after a precipitating trauma
End feel
refers to the characteristic feel each specific joint has at the end ROM
the resistance of muscles to passive elongation or stretch
state of increased tone above normal resting levels
a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by impaired or disordered tone, accompanied by repetitive involuntary movements;typically twisting or writhing motions
increased tone or resistance of muscle causing stiff awkward movements; the result of an UMN
cyclical,spasmodic alteration of muscular contraction and relaxation in response to a sustained stretch of a spastic muscle
Clasp-knife response
a sudden relaxation or letting go of a spastic muscle in response to a stretch stimulus
Babinski sign
dorsiflexion of the great toe with fanning of the other toes on stimulation of the lateral sole of the foot
Decorticate rigidity
sustained contraction and posturing of the trunk and LL in extension,and the UL in flexion;results from a lesion at the level of the diencephalon (above the superior colliculus)
Decerebrate rigidity
sustained contraction and posturing of the trunk and limbs in a position of full extension;results from a lesion in the brainstem between the superior colliculi and vestibular nucleus
strong and sustained contraction of the extensor muscles of the neck and trunk
absence of muscle tone
Jaw reflex (trigeminal nerve)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting,with jaw relaxed and slightly finger on top of chin;tap downward on top of finger in a direction which causes the jaw to open RESPONSE - jaw rebounds
Biceps reflex (C5,C6)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting with arm flexed and thimb over the biceps tendon in the cubital fossa,stretching it slightly.tap thumb or directly on the tendon RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs (elbow flexes)
Triceps reflex (C7,C8)
RESPONSE - pt is sitting with arm supported in abduction,elbow flexed.palpate triceps tendon just above olecranon.tap directly on tendon. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs(elbow extends)
Hamstring reflex (L5,S1,S2)
STIMULUS - pt is prone with knee semiflexed and supported.palpate tendon at the knee.tap on finger or directly on tendon. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs(knee flexes)
Patellar reflex(L2,L3,L4)
STIMULUS - pt is sitting with knee flexed,foot unsupported.tap tendon of quadriceps muscle between the patella and tibial tuberosity RESPONSE - contraction of muscle normally occurs (knee extends)
Ankle reflex (S1,S2)
STIMULUS - pt is prone with foot over the end of the plinth or sitting with knee flexed and foot held in slight dorsiflexion.tap tendon just above its insertion on the calcaneus.maintaining slight tension on the gastrocnemius-soleus group improves the response. RESPONSE - slight contraction of muscle normally occurs (foot plantarflexes)
Plantar reflex (S1,S2)
STIMULUS - with a large pin or fingertip,stroke up the lateral side of the foot,moving from the heel to the base of the little toe and then across the ball of the foot NORMAL RESPONSE - slow flexion(plantarflexion) of the great toe,and sometimes the other toes. ABNORMAL RESPONSE - termed a positive Babinski,is a extension (dorsiflexion) of the great toe with fanning of the 4 other toes(typically seen in UMN (corticospinal) lesions)
Chaddock reflex
STIMULUS - stroke around lateral ankle and up lateral aspect of foot to the base of the little toe. NORMAL RESPONSE - slow flexion (plantar flexion) of the gr8 toe,and sometimes the other toes. ABNORMAL RESPONSE - termed a positive Babinski,is a extension (dorsiflexion) of the great toe with fanning of the 4 other toes(typically seen in UMN (corticospinal) lesions)
Abdominal (T7-12)
STIMULUS - position pt in supine position,relaxed.make quick,light stroke with a large pin or fingertip over the skin of the abdominals from the periphery to the unbilicus(test each abdominal quadrant separately) RESPONSE - localized contraction under the stimulus,causing the unbilicus to move toward the quadrant stimulated.
Flexor withdrawl reflex - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - noxious stimuli(pinprick)to sole fo foot.tested in supine or sitting position. RESPONSE - toes extend,foot dorsiflexes,entire leg flexes uncontrollably. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED - 1-2 months
an abnormally small handwriting that is difficult to read.
Festinating gait
abnormal gait characterized by an involuntary progressive increase in the speed with a shortening of stride
Propulsive gait
a festinating gait that has a forward accelerating quality
Retropulsive gait
a festinating gait that has a backward accelerating quality
excessive drooling. seen in parkinsonism
Hypokinetic dysarthria
difficult and defective speech characterized by decreased voice volume,monotone/monopitch speech,imprecise or distorted articulation,and uncontrolled speech rate.seen in PD
condition of being unable to speak or speaking only in whispers
Postural stress syndrome
fluctuations in motor performance and response;seen with long-term use of L-dopa therapy
extreme motor restlessness
a disorder of intellectual function characterized by a slowing of thought processes with lack of concentration and attention.
Stereotaxic surgery
surgical lesioning of brain
a destructive lesion is produced in the BG,the globus pallidus internus
a destructive lesion is produced within the thalamus,the ventral intermediate nucleus
extreme slowness and difficulty maintaining movement
inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing
involuntary movements;often associated with long-term use of L-dopa therapy
Charcot's triad
cardinal symptoms of MS include intention tremor,scanning speech,nystagmus
Crossed extension - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - noxious stimulus to ball of foot of extremity fixed in extension;tested in supine position RESPONSE - opposite LL flexes,then adducts and extends. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED: 1-2 months
Traction - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - grasp forearm and pull up from supine into sitting position RESPONSE - grasp and total flexion of the UL. ONSET - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED: 2-5 months
Moro - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - sudden change in posiiton of head in relation to trunk;drop pt backward from sitting position RESPONSE - extension,abduction of UL,hand opening,and crying followed by flexion,adduction of arms,crying ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 5-6 months
Startle - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - sudden loud or harsh noise RESPONSE - sudden extension or abduction of arms,crying ONSET - birth INTEGRATED: persists
primitive / spinal reflexes
flexor withdrawl, crossed extension, traction, moro, stratle, grasp
Grasp - primitive/spinal reflexes
STIMULUS - maintained pressure to palm of hand (palmar grasp) or to ball of foot under toes (plantar grasp) RESPONSE - maintained flexion of fingers or toes. ONSET - palmar - birth; plantar - 28 weeks gestation INTEGRATED : palmar - 4-6 months; plantar - 9 months
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - rotation of the head to one side RESPONSE - flexion of skull limbs and extension of jaw limbs "bow and arrow" or "fencing " posture ONSET- birth INTEGRATED : 4-6 months
Symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) -tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - flexion or extension of the head RESPONSE - with head flexion : flexion of arms,extension of legs , with head extension : extension of arms,flexion of legs ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED : 8-12 months
Symmetrical tonic labyrinthine (TLR) - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - prone or supine position RESPONSE - with prone posiiton:increased flexor tone/flexion of all limbs ; with supine: increased tone/extension of all limbs ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 6 months
Positive supporting - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - contact to the ball of the foot in upright standing position RESPONSE - rigid extension (co-contraction) of the LL ONSET - birth INTEGRATED : 6 months
Associated reactions - tonic/brainstem reflexes
STIMULUS - resisted voluntary movement in any part of the body RESPONSE - involuntary movement in a resting extremity ONSET - birth - 3 months INTEGRATED - 8-9 yrs
tonic/brainstem reflexes
ATNR,STNR,TLR,associated reaction, postive supporting
midbrain/cortical reflexes
NOB,BOB,labyrinthine head righting,optical righting,BOH, protective extension,equilibrium reactions - tilting, equilibirum reactions - postural fixation
neck righting action on the body (NOB) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - passively turn head to one side;tested in supine RESPONSE - body rotates as a whole(log rolls) to align the body with the head ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED: 5 yrs
body righting acting on the body (BOB) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - passively rotate upper or lower trunk segment;tested in supine RESPONSE - body segment not rotated follows to align the body segments. ONSET - 4-6 months INTEGRATED: persists
Labyinthine head righting (LR) - midbrain/cortical reflex
STIMULUS - occlude vision; alter body position by tipping body in all directions RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth-2 months INTEGRATED : persists
optical righting (OR) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - alter body position by tipping body in all directions RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth - 2 months
Body righting acting on head (BOH) - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - place in prone or supine position RESPONSE - head orients to vertical position with mouth horizontal ONSET - birth-2 months INTEGRATED : 5 yrs
Protective extension - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - displace COG outside the base of support RESPONSE - arms or legs extend and abduct to support and to protect the body against falling. ONSET - arms: 4-6 months; legs : 6-9 months INTEGRATED : persists
Equilibrium reaction - tilting - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - displace the COG by tilting or moving the support surface (eg. with a movable object such as an equilibrium board or ball) RESPONSE - curvature of trunk toward the upward side along with extension and abduction of the extremities on that side; protective extension on the opposite (downward)side ONSET - prone 6 months; supine 7-8 months; sitting 7-8 months; quadruped 9-12 months; standing 12-21 months INTEGRATED : persists
Equilibrium reacions - postural fixation - midbrain/cortical reflexes
STIMULUS - apply a displacing force to the body,altering the COG in its relation to the base of support; can also be observed during voluntary activity RESPONSE - curvature of the trunk toward the external force with extension and abduction of the extremities on the side to which the force was applied. ONSET - prone 6 months; supine 7-8 months; sitting 7-8 months; quadruped 9-12 months; standing 12-21 months INTEGRATED : persists
Muscle endurance
the ability to contract the muscle repeatedly over a period of time
the failure to generate the required or expected force during sustained or repeated contractions
the limit of endurance beyond which no further performance is possible
Abnormal synergy
an obligatory high stereotyped mass pattern of movement
Postural orientation
the control of relative positions of body parts by skeletal muscles with respect to gravity and to each other
Reactive control
control that occurs in response to external forces displacing the Center Of Mass or movement of the BOS.
Proactive (anticipatory) control
control that occurs in anticipation of internallt generated destabilizing forces imposed on the body's own movements
Adaptive control
control that allows the individual to appropriately modify the sensorimotor systems in response to changing task and environmental demands
Limits of stability
the maximum angle from vertical that can be tolerated without a loss of balance
initial movement in a functional patttern;ROM is available for movement to occur and there is sufficient motor unit activity to initiate muscle contraction
Stability (static postural control)
the ability to maintain a steady position in a wt bearing,antigravity posture
Controlled mobility (dynamic postural control)
the ability to maintain postural control during wt shifting and movement
Static-dynamic control
the ability to shift wt onto support segments, freeing up a limb for dynamic activities
highly coordinated mobvement that allows for investigation and interaction with the physical and social environment
Closed skill
motor skill performed in a stable, nonchanging environment
Open skill
motor skill performed in a variable,changing environment
Motor learning
a set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled behavior
Retention test
a performance test administered after a period of no practice (retention interval) for the purposes fo assessing learning
the extent to which practice on one task contributes to the performance of other related skills
voltage signals generated by a source other than the one of interest
Movement artifact
an electrical signal resulting from the movement of the recording electrodes or their cables
Stimulus artifact
a potential recorded at the time the stimulus is applied
the recording and study of the electrical activity of muscle.
Nerve conduction velocity
the speed with which a peripheral motor or sensory nerve conducts an impulse
Motor unit action potential
action potential reflecting the electrical activity of a single motor unit capable of being recorded by an electrode. characterized by its amplitude,configuration,duration,frequency,sound
Motor unit
the anatomical of an anterior horn cell,its axon,the neuromuscular junctions and all the muscle fibers innervated by that axon
a device capable of recording electrical potentials or conducting electricity to provide a stimulus
Active electrode
a bipolar electrode configuration with fixed interelectrode geometry and preamplifiers at the detection site
Ground electrode
an electrode connected to a common source,used to reduce the effect of electrical noise in a recording system;an arbitrary zero potential reference point
Recording electrode
needle or surface electrode used to record electrical activity from nerve and muscle
Reference electrode
in motor nerve conduction velocity test, the electrode placed over the tendon of the test muscle. in monopolar recording of EMG, the inactive electrode is placed over a neutral area
Stimulating electrode
device used to apply electrical current to stimulate propagation of a nerve impulse or muscle contraction;requires positive (anode) and negative (cathode) terminals
Surface electrodes
small metal disks applied to the skin overlying the appropriate musle and used to monitor EMG signals from large,superficial muscles
Conduction velocity
speed of propagation of an action potential along a nerve or muscle fiber. calculated in meters/sec
activity seen at one electrode site there is generated by a muscle other than the one being monitored
Electrical silence
the absence of measurable EMG activity,typically recorded at rest in normal muscles
Evoked potential
waveform elicited by a stimulus.
Fasciculation potentials
electrical activity characterized by random,spontaneous twitching of a group of muscle fibers which may be visible through the skin.the amplitude,configuration,duration,and frequency are variable
Fibrillation potential
electrical activity associated with fibrillating muscle and reflecting the activity of a single muscle fiber;associated with denervation and myopathy.these potentials are biphasic spikes of short duration,with a peak-to-peak amplitude less than 1 millivolt,a firing rate ranging from 1-50 hertz,and a high pitched regular sound likened to "rain on the roof"
Giant motor units
motor unit potentials with a peak to peak amplitude and duration much greater than normal ranges.often seen after collateral sprouting with regenartion of peripheral nerves
Insertion activity
electrical activity caused by insertion or movementof a needle electrode in a muscle.can be described as normal,reduced,increased,or prolonged
Interference pattern
electrical activity,recorded from a muscle during maximal voluntary effort,in which identification of each of the contributing motor unit potentials is not possible
in nerve conduction velocity tests,the interval between onset of a stimulus and the onset of a response,measured from the stimulus artifact to the onset of the M wave
polyphasic potentials
action potentials having five or more phases
Positive sharp waves
electrical potentials associated with fibrillating muscle fibers,recorded as a biphasic,positive-negative action potential initiated by needle movement and recurring in uniform patterns. the initial positive phase is of short duration and large amplitude and the second negative phase is of long duration and low amplitude
Repetitive discharges
in extended train of potentials,generally 5 to 100 impulses per second,commonly seen in lesions of the anterior horn cell and peripheral nerves,and with some myopathies
Spontaneous potentials
action potentials recorded from muscle or nerve at rest after insertional activity has subsided and when there is no voluntary contraction or external stimulus
Volume conduction
spread of current from a potential source through a conducting medium,such as body tissues.
Stance phase
the portion of gait in ehich one extremity is in contact with the ground.
Swing phase
the phase of gait during which the reference limb is not in contact with the supporting surface
Double support time
the priod of the gait cycle when both LL are in contact with the supporting surface (double support);measured in seconds
consists of 2 dimensions;a distance and time;two steps comprise a stride
consists of 2 dimensions; a distance and time
Swing time
the number of seconds during the gait cycle that one foot is off the ground.swing time shd be measured seperately for right and left extremities
Step length
the linear distanc between 2 successive points of contact of the right and left LL. measurement taken from the point of heel contact at heel strike on one extremity to the point of heel contact of the opposite extremity
Step time
the number of seconds between consecutive right and left foot contacts;both right and left step times shd be measured
Stride length
the linear distance between 2 consecutive foot contacts of the same LL. measurement is taken from the point of one heel contact at heel strike and the next heel contact of the same extremity
Sride time
the number of seconds that elapses during one stride (from one foot contact until the next contact of the same foot)
a description of the type,amount,and direction of motion;does not include the forces producing the motion
the study of forces that cause motion
Motor control
an area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural,physical,and behavioral aspects of movement
Associative stage of learning
the second or middle stage of learning in which hte skill strategy has been selected;refinement of the skill is achieved through continued practice
Autonomous stage of motor learning
the third stage of learning in which the spatial and temporal aspects of movement become highly organized through practice;there is automacity of the skill with a low degree of attention required for performance
Cognitive stage of motor learning
the initial stage of learning in which the cognitive plan for the skill is developed;the learner develops an understanding of the task,develops strategies,and determines how the task should be evaluated
Recovery of function
the re-acquisition of movement skills lost through injury
Knowledge of performance
Augmented feedback related to the nature of the movement pattern produced
Knowledge of results
augmented feedback related to the nature of the result produced in terms of the environmental goal
Neural plasticity
the ability of the brain to change and repair itself
the recovery of function through the utilization of different and underutilized areas of the brain
the recovery of function through use of available back-up or fail-safe systems within the CNS
Functional substitution
recovery of function through reprogramming of brain areas.
the recovery of brain activity after the resolution of temporary blocking factors
the capacity of the brain to process information from the environment or from long term memory
Divided attention
the ability to do several tasks at one time
Focused attention
the ability to respond to different kinds of stimulation
Selective attention
the ability to screen and process relevant sensory information about both the task and the environment while screening out irrelevant information
Sustained attention (vigilance)
the ability to maintain prolonged attention
Mental practice
a practice method in which performance on the task is imajined or visualized without overt physical practice
Constant practice
practice organized around one task performed repeatedly
Variable practice
practice of several variations of the same task or within the same category or class of movements
Massed practice
a prolonged period of practice sequence of practice and rest periods in which the rest time is much less than the practice time
Distributed practice
an alternating sequence of practice and rest periods in which practice time is less than rest time
Transfer of training
the gain or loss of task performance as a result of practice or experience on some other task
Parts-to-whole transfer
practice of separate component parts before practice of the integrated whole
Bilateral transfer
the ability to learn a skill after the skill has been practiced with the opposite hand or foot.
Cerebrovascular accident/stroke
acute onset of neurological dysfunction due to an abnormalityin cerebral circulation with signs and symptoms that correspond to involvement of focal areas of the brain
motor paralysis of one half of the body
motor weakness (partial paralysis) affecting one half of the body
Reversible ischemic neurological deficit
impairments resolve spontaneously with neurological recovery,generally within 3 weeks
localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel,usually an artery. due to congenital defect or weakness of the wall of the vessel
Berry aneurysm
a small saccular congenital aneurysm of a cerebral vessel
Arteriovenous malformation
an abnormality in embryonic development leading to a skein of tangled arteries and veins,usually without an intervening capillary commonly occurs along the distribution of the middle cerebralartery and its rupture produces cerebral hemorrhage
thickening of the walls of the arteries due to plaque formation with loss of elasticity and contractility
Atherothrombotic brain infarction
infarction or death of brain tissue resulting from a thrombus
Cerebral hemorrhage
abnormal bleeding into the extravascular areas of the brain secondary to aneurysm or trauma
Intercerebral hemorrhage
rupture of a cerebral vessel with subsequent bleeding into the cerebral hemispheres
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
rupture and bleeding into the subarachnoid space typically from a berry or saccular aneurysm
Cerebral embolus
traveling bits of matter formed elsewhere and released into the bloodstream;emboli travel to cerebral vessels where they lodge,producing occlusion and infarction;emboli may be dislodged plaque,or less commonly septic,fat or air molecules
Cerebral thrombosis
formation of a blood clot or thrombus within the cerebral arteries or their branches
Brain herniation
secondary brain damage and neurological deterioration resulting from significant edema,elevated intracranial pressures,with resulting contralateral and caudal shifts of brain structures
Transient ischemic attack
temperory interruption of blood supply to the brain. symptoms of neurological deficit may last for only a few minutes or hours but do not last over 24 hr. after the attack no evidence of residual brain damage or neurological damage remains
Major stroke
stable,usually severe neurological deficit
Deteriorating stroke
neurological status deteriorates after admission to the admission to the hospital
Young stroke
affecting persons below the age of 45
Locked -in syndrome
quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness;secondary to a ventral pontine lesion
Souques' phenomenon
an associated reaction in which elevation of the hemiplegic arm above the horizontal may elicit an extension and abduction response of the fingers
RAimiste's phenomenon
an associated reaction in which abduction or adduction of the normal limb produces a similar response in the affectced limb
Homolateral limb synkinesis
an associated reaction between the hemiplegic limbs;flexion of the arm elicits flexion of the leg on the hemiplegic side, or vice versa
Ipsilateral pushing (pusher syndrome)
an unusual motor behavior characterized by the pt's strong lateral lean toward the hemiplegic side in all positions
acute worsening or flare-up of neurological signs and symptoms,usually associated with inflammation and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord
a period free of evolving symptoms
Autoimmune disease
a disease produced when the body's normal tolerance of its own antigenic markers on cells dissapears. autoantibodies are produced by Blymphocytes and attack normal cells
destruction or removal of the myelin sheath of nerve tissue by a disease process
proliferation of neurological tissue within the CNS that results in glial scars (plaques)
sclerosed (hardened) and scarred myelin in areas of the brain and spinal cord,causing a short0circuiting of electrical transmission
abnormal burning or aching sensations
a hypersensitivity to minor sensory stimuli
Lhermitte's sign
a sensation like an electric shock running down the spine and into the LL and produced by flexing the neck
Optic neuritis
inflammation of the optic nerve that may produce blurring or graying of vision, or blindness in one eye;often associated with pain in the eye
Trigeminal neuralgia
degeneration (demyelination) of the sensory division of trigeminal nerve (CN V), resulting in severe,paroxymal pain in the face
island like blind gap in the visual field
involuntary,cyclical movement of the eyeball;movement may be in any direction.develops in response to lesions affecting the cerebellum or vestibular system
Internuclear opthalmoplegia
incomplete eye adduction (lateral gaze palsy) on the affected side and a nystagmus of the opposite abducting eye with gaze to one side
double vision that occurs when the muscles that control the eyes are not well coordinated
Uthoff's symptom
individuals with MS exhibit an adverse reaction to heat;the effect is usually immidiate and dramatic in terms of reduced function and increased fatigue
Frenkel's exercises
exercises designed to improve incoordination and ataxia resulting from a loss of proprioception
Frenkel's exercises
given in MS
Local brain damage
injury localized to the area of the brain un derlying the site of impact.produces predictable neurological signs according to the specific location
Coup-countercoup injury
coup contusions occur at the site of contact while countercoup contusions occur in brain tissue opposite the point of contact
Polar brain damage
injury that results from contact between the surfaces of the brain and the cranium.most commonly affects the frontal and temporal lobes
Diffuse axonal injury
widely scattered shearing of axons which,although not intense in any one location,causes dramatic disability as a result of its cumulative effect
Hypoxic-ischemic injury
brain damage that results from arterial hypotension and hypoxemia and is complicated by raised intracranial pressure,cerebral vasospasm,brain edema,and combinations of these,as well as an impaired ability of the vessels of the brain to autoregulate
Intracranial hematoma
a collection of blood within the cranium that results from leakage from a blood vessel.
Epidural hematoma
extravascular blood mass located between the dura and skull
Intracerebral hematoma
extravascular blood mass located within the brain tissue
Subdural hematoma
extravascular blood mass located beneath the dura
Intracranial pressure
measure of pressure inside the cranium. normal ICP is 5 to 10 mm Hg
protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through a surrounding wall or cavity.
Central herniation
protrusion of the midbrain and pons through the tentorial notch
Tonsillar herniation
protrusion of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum
Uncal herniation
protrusion of the uncus and hippocampal gyrus of the brain through the tentorial notch
Obstructive hydrocephalus
enlargement of the ventricles of the brain caused by an impairment of flow and absorption of CSF
Post traumatic epilepsy
seizure disorder that develops following head trauma
Autodestructive cellular phenomena
a series of events that occur in the brain due to trauma-induced changes in cellular membranes
partial or complete paralysis of all four extremities and trunk,including the respiratory muscles from lesions of the cervical cord
partial or complete paralysis of all or part of the trunk and both LL feom lesions of the thoracic or lumbar spinal cord or sacral roots
Complete lesion (SCI)
no sensory or motor ffunction below the level of lesion
Incomplete lesion (SCI)
some preservation of sensory or motor function below the level of the lesion
Contusion (SCI)
damage to the spinal cord produced by pressure from displaced bone and/or soft tissues or swelling
Brown sequrd syndrome
incomplete spinal cord lesion caused by hemisection of the cord;loss of motor function,proprioception,and kinesthesia on the side of the lesion;loss of sense of pain and temperature on the opposite side
Anterior cord syndrome
incomplete spinal cord lesion with primary damage in the anterior cord;loss of motor function,and sense of pain and temperature;preservation of proprioception, kinesthesia,and vibration below the level of the lesion
Posterior cord syndrome
a rare incomplete lesion with primary damage to the posterior cord;preservation of motor function,sense of pain,and light touch,with loss of proprioception and epicritic sensations below the level of the lesion
Central cord syndrome
incomplete spinal cord lesion producing greater neurological involvement in UL (cervical tracts more centrally located) than in the LL (lumbar and sacral tracts more peripheral)
Sacral sparing
an incomplete lesion in which some sacral innervation remains intact;complete loss of motor function and sensation in other areas below the level of the lesion
Cauda equina lesions
damage to peripheral nerve roots below the first lumbar vertebra;some regeneration is possible
LMN lesion
motor dysfunction,associated with lesions of the anterior horn cell or peripheral nerve
Root escape
preservation of peripheral nerve roots at the level of a spinal cord injury
application of a horizontal or parallel force relative to adjacent structures;opposite to the force that is normally present;associated with fracture dislocations of the thoracolumbar region
a traction force;seperation of joint surfaces
Bulbocavernous reflex (positive)
pressure on the glans penis or glans clitoris that elicits a contraction of the external anal spincter
Spinal shock
period immidiately following injury to the spinal cord,characterized by absence of all reflex activity, flaccidity,and a loss of sensation below the level of the lesion;generally subsides within 24 hrs
profuse sweating
Peripheral nerve blocks
a local chemical injection used to block transmission of a motor nerve selectively;used to decrease spasticity
Intrathecal injections
a central (within the spinal cord) chemical injection that interrupts the reflex arc;used to decrease severe spasticity
surgical sectioning or release of a muscle;used to reduce spasticity
partial or total excision or resection of a nerve;used to reduce severe spasticity
surgical section of a nerve;used to reduce spasticity
severance of nerve fibers of the spinal cord;used to reduce severe spasticity
excessive urination during the night
Upper motor neuron lesion
motor dysfunction associated with lesions of corticol,subcorticol or spinal cord structure
softening of a solid by exposure to water or other fliud;usually pertains to the skin
Autonomic dysreflexia(hyperreflexia)
a pathological autonomic reflex seen in pts with high level spinal cord is precipitated by a noxious stimulus below the level of the lesion and produces an acute onset of autonomic is considered an emergency situation;symptoms include hypertension,bradycardia,headache,and sweating
Heterotrophic ossification
abnormal bone growth in soft tissues, a potential secondary complication following spinal cord injury;occurs below the level of lesion
Dysesthesias (SCI)
bizarre,painful sensations experienced below the level of a lesion following spinal cord injury;often described as burning,numbness,pins and needles,or tingling sensations
Cognitive processes
the abilities that enable us to think which includes the ability to concentrate or pay attention,remeber and learn
Homonymous hemianopsia
blindness in the outer half of the visual field of one eye and the inner half of the visual field of another eye,producing an inability to receive information from either the right or the left half of the visual environment
Visual fixation
the ability to maintain focus on an object as it is brought closer to and farther away from the eyes
Ocular persuit
the ability of the eyes to follow a moving object
Cortical blindness
a total failure to appreciate incoming visual sensory information owing to a lesion in the cortex,rather than injury to the eyes
Area of lesion for attention disorders
limbic and frontal regions
Immidiate recall
the ability to remember information that has been stored for a few seconds
Long-term memory
a compilation of early experiences and information acquired over a period of years
a mental process that allows the individual to store experiences and perceptions for recall at a later time
Short-term memory
the retention of events or learning that has taken place within a few hrs or days
Area of lesion for memory disorders
frontal,parietal,temporal and occipital lobes,limbic system
is the capacity to determine what one needs and wants to do
is the identification and organization of the steps and elements needed to carry out an intention or achieve a goal
Purposive action
includes productivity and self-regulation,which encompasses the ability to initiate,maintain,switch,and stop complex action sequences
Effective performance
is the capacity for quality control,including the ability to self-monitor and self-correct one's behavior
Body image
a visual and mental image of one's body that includes feelings about one's body,especially in relation to health and disease
Body scheme
a postural model of one's body,including the relationship of the body parts to each other and the relationship of the body to the environment
Unilateral neglect
the inability to register and to integrate visual stimuli and perceptions from one side of the environment (usually the left),not attributable to sensory-based a result,the pt ignores stimuli occuring in that side of personal space
one half of the spatial field around the body.for example,the space surrounding the left body side including the person's back,front and head.
area affected executive functions disorder
frontal and prefrontal cortex
area of lesion body scheme/body image disorders
inferior-posterior regions of the right parietal lobe
a perceptual disability including denial,neglect,and lack of awareness of the presence or severity of one's paralysis
area of lesion anosognosia
nondominant parietal lobe
impairment in body scheme;a lack of awareness of the body structure and the relationship of body parts of oneself or of others
area of lesion somatoagnosia
dominant parietal lobe
Right/left discrimination
the inability to identify the right and left sides of one's own body or that of the examiner
area of lesion right/left discrimination disorder
parietal lobe of either hemisphere
Finger agnosia
the inability to identify the fingers on one's own hands or on the hands of the examiner;including difficulty in naming the fingers on command,identifying which finger was touched,and mimicking finger movements
area of lesion finger agnosia
parietal lobe
disorders of writing not due to motor difficulties in letter formation
spatial relations disorder
a constellation of deficits that have in common a difficulty in perceiving the relationship between objects in space,or the relationship between the self or two more objects
area of lesion figure-ground discrimination
parieto-occipital lesions of right hemisphere
figure-ground discrimination
the ability to distinguish a figure from the background in which it is embedded
form discrimination
the ability to perceive or to attend to subtle differences in form and shape. the perceptually impaired pt is likely to confuse objects of similar shape or to fail to recognize an object placed in an unusual position
area of lesion form discrimination
parieto-temporo-occipital region of the nondominant lobe
spatial relations deficit
the inability to perceive the relationship of one object in space to another object ot to oneself
area of lesion spatial relations deficit
inferior parietal lobe or parieto-occipital-temporal junction usually of the right side
position in space disorder
the inability to perceive and interpret spatial concepts such as up,down,under,over,in,out,in front of,and behind
area of lesion position in space disorder
nondominent parietal lobe
Topographic disorientation
difficulty in understanding and remembering the relationship of one plac eto another
area of lesion topographic disorientation
inferior parietal lobe or occipital association cortex and the occipitotemporal cortex on right side. bilateral parietal lesions as well as occasional leftsided parietal lobe can cause this problem
Depth and distance perception
judgement of the distance between objects and self,and the depth between objects and self
area of lesion Depth and distance perception
lesion in the posterior right hemisphere
Vertical disorientation
A distorted perception of the upright (vertical) position
area of lesion vertical disorientation
nondominant parietal lobe
the inability to recognise familiar objects with one sensory modality,while retaining the ability to recognise the same object with other sensory modalities
Visual object agnosia
the inability to recognize familiar objects despite normal function of the eyes and optical tracts
the inability to perceive a visual stimulus as a whole;also known as Balint's syndrome
an inability to recognize faces or other visually ambigious stimuli as being familiar and distinct from one another
area of lesion simultanagnosia
dominent occipital lobe
area of lesion color agnosia
dominent hemisphere lesion
Auditory agnosia
the inability to recognize nonspeech sounds or to discriminate between them
area of lesion auditory agnosia
dominant temporal lobe
Tactile agnosia or astereognosis
the inability to recognize objects by handling them,although tactile,proprioceptive,and thermal sensations may be intact
area of lesion tactile agnosia or astereognosis
parieto-temporo-occipital lobe (posterior association areas) of either hemisphere
a disorder of voluntary learned movement that is characterized by an inability to perform purposeful movements and that cannot be accounted for by inadequate strength,loss of coordination,impaired sensation,attentional deficits,or lack of comprehension
area of lesion apraxia
dominant hemisphere lesion
Ideomotor apraxia
the inability to perform a task on command and to imitate gestures,even though the pt understands the concept of the task;pt is able to carry out habitual tasks automatically
area of lesion ideomotor apraxia
lesions in the left,dominant hemisphere
Ideational apraxia
an inability to perform a purposeful motor act,either automatically or upon command;an inability to retain the idea of the task and to formulate the necessary motor patterns.the pt no longer understands the overall concept of the act
area of ideational apraxia
dominant parietal lobe
Color agnosia
an inability to recognize colors
fluid within the semicircular canals
Otolith organs
linear movement sensor of the vestibular system
Semicircular canals
angular movement sensors of the vestibular system
Vestibulo-ocular reflex
reflex responsible for generating eye movement,
Smooth pursuit
voluntary eye movement used to follow a moving target
Push-pull mechanism
the brain detects head movement through comparison of inputs from the 2 vestibular system. the SCCs all work in pairs; the right anterior SCC is paired with the left posterior SCC and vice versa, and the 2 horizontal canals are a pair. as the head is turned to the right, the right horizontal SCC will have an increased firing rate (depolarized) while the left horizontal SCC has a decreased firing rate (hyperpolarized).
subjective sensation that one is off balance
visual blurring during head motion
Peripheral vestibular lesion
a lesion in the peripheral vestibular organ or cranial nerve VIII
sensation of lightheadedness,whirling or feeling a tendency to fall
sense of feeling as if about to faint
membranous structure within the temporal bone on each side of skull
primary functions of the peripheral vestibular system
1) to stabilize visual images on the fovea of the retina during head movement to allow clear vision 2) to maintain postural stability, especially during movement of the head 3) to provide information used for spatial orientation
Movement sensors in labyrinth
semicircular canals and the otolith organs
types of semicircular canals (SCC)
anterior or superior; posterior or inferior; horizontal or lateral
the otoliths
they r comprised of the saccule and the utricle, respond to linear acceleration and to the pull of gravity
signals from SCC and from the saccule and utricle
signals from 3 SCCs are used for gaze stability; signals from the utricle and saccule are used for postural stability
principles of vestibular system
tonic firing rate, vestibulo-ocular system(VOR), push-pull mechanism, inhibitory cut off, and the velocity storage system(VSS)
tonic firing rate
normal vestibular system has a tonic firing rate of 80 pulses per second. angular or linear movement of the head can increase or decrease the firing rate of the vestibular system
vestibular gain
normally,as the head moves in one direction,the eyes will move in the opposite direction with equal velocity. this relationship of eye velocity to head velocity is expressed as the vestibular gain
fast,involuntary eye movement
fragments of otoconia floating freely in the endolypmh of the SCC; associated with positional vertigo
fragments of otoconia gravitate to and become attached to the cupula of the SCC; associated with positional vertigo
What is visual evoked potentials? What is the average response time in normal person? (MS)
you stimulate the eyes with a checkerboard pattern and the impulses are measured over the occipital area where the visual center is;
Specifically, how does vision loss present in MS
partial or complete visual loss
development of scotomas
changes in color vision
pain with extraocular movements
What is MS?
a prototypical demyelinating disease
What is thought to cause the symptoms of MS?
problems of nerve conduction due to axonal demyelination and disruption
The attacking of myelin and oligodendrocytes in MS is thought to be due to...
a complex interaction of immune system components such as macrophages, T-cells, and various cytokines
What is the second most common symptom of MS?
visual loss
What is attacked in MS?
both the myelin and the myelin producing oligodendrocytes
What causes visual loss in MS?
optic neuritis
What are some symptoms of MS?
visual loss,
bladder problems,
sexual dysfunction,
cognitive dysfunction
What is the most common symptom of MS?
numbness that begins in the arm or leg and gradually spreads to waist or neck levels
What are the four patterns of MS?
1.relapsing remitting MS
2.secondary progressive MS
3.primary progressive MS relapsing MS
What are the 3 diagnostic tests for MS?
Visual evoked potentials
What is the pathological hallmark of MS?
plaques (MS means multiple scars)
What are some consequences of untreated MS?
becoming wheelchair bound, vision loss, bowel or bladder dysfunction
Who does MS commonly affect?
women between the ages of 20-40 (primarily Caucasians of northern european or scandinavian descent)
What are the 3 main pathological processes seen in MS?
1st: inflammation
2nd: demyelination
3rd: axonal loss
What tracts are found in the cerebral peduncles?
corticospinal and corticobulbar
The caudate, putamemn,globus pallidus, and amygdala are collectively referred to as the ____________ ____________.
basal ganglia
In general, each cerebral hemisphere controls the __________ side of the body.
A lesion to both sides of the brain is said to be a ____________ lesion.
The two cerebral ventricles that are located on the midline of the brain are the __________and ___________ ventricles.
Language related abilities are sedom disrupted by lesions of the __________ hemisphere.
Together, the diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalong compose the ________ ________.
The spinal cord has no ventricles; instead it has the ___________ ____________.
central canal
Caudate plus putmen equals ______________.
The ___________ nervous system is the major division of the peripheral nervous system that participates in the regulation of the body's internal environment.
The cerebral aqueduct is located in the ____________.
The motor division of the autonomic nervous sytem that is active during periods of threat is the ___________ nervous system.
Unilateral input to a brain structure is either contralateral or _________.
The motor fibers of the cranial nerves are considered to be part of the ______________ division of the autonomic nervous system.
The dorsal column nuclei are located in the _______________.
The pia mater adheres to the surface of the _________ nervous system.
The precentral gyrus is in the ______________ lobe.
Primary __________ cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus.
A pathway from the right hand to the left side of the brain is said to be _______________ pathway.
As the result of the pattern of decussation in the visual pathways, information about any object that we see to the left of our center of gaze is conducted from the left eye to the __ hemisphere and from the right eye to the ___________ hemisphere.
The mouth area of the left motor homunuculus is adjacent to ________ area.
Of the brain's five divisions, the most anterior is the ________, and the most posterior is the _________________.
Primary __________ cortex is located in the precentral gyrus
The two divisions of nthe peripheral nervous system are the autonomic nervous system and the ________ nervous system.
Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the _________ gyrus of each ________ lobe.
The ______ ___________ lies between the thalamus and putamen.
globus pallidus
largest nerve; supplies the voluntary and involuntaru motor impulses to all but two eye muscles
Oculomotor nerve
head of femur doesn't quit "fit" in hips
superior pubic ramus
upper part of pubic bone
cuneiform bones
3 bones that articulate with metatarsals
medial and lateral supercondylar ridges
where the ridge divides into 2 parts (distal end of shaft)
3 bones that make up the pelvic girdle
Coxae: ilium, ischium, pubis
What are the 2 tuberosities for uscles and ligament attachment on the Femur?
Greater trochanter and lesser trochanter
Sciatic nerve
main nerve that runs down legs, carries sensory information to the brain
arcuate line
line across the iliac fossa (on back)
notch behind iliac spine for sciatic nerve
greater sciatic notch
where 2 pubic bones are connected together
pubic tubercle
tract of arched association fibers
optic chisam
(chi= crossing over)
- anterior to the infundibulum
- area where the optic nerves cross
3 main regions of the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
white matter
basal ganglia
- brain's central area
- 3 regions:
cerebral cortex
(cortex= bark)
- superficial gray matter composed of nerve cell bodies & dendrites
- integrates sensory info/
initiates motor output/
involved in emotions & intellectual processes
- AKA cortical area
- INSULA: area that lies deeper on the lateral sides
internal capsule
large group of projection fibers
projection fibers
ascending and descending fiber tracts that project nerve impulses
from inferior to superior brain areas or vice versa
white matter
- deep to the outer cortex
- composed mainly of myelinated axons organized into fiber tracts
Cranial nerves III and IV originate from this portion of the brain
Layer of the meninges that holds blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater
Lobe in which the estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes takes place
Parietal lobe
System involved in emotional states and behavior
Limbic system
Connects cerebellum with other portions of the brain
Helps to regulate respiration
Outermost layer of the meninges
Dura mater
Cranial nerves that contain only sensory fibers
Bleeding between the dura mater and the skull usually on the side of the head resulting from a skull fracture causing damage to an artery
Epidural hematoma
Instrument used to study electrical activity of the brain
Vascular network in the ventricles of the brain that forms CSF by filtration of the blood and by cellular secretion
Choroid plexus
Helps maintain muscle tone so that all muscle fibers are slightly tensed and ready to produce changes in position as quickly as neccessary
Supplies one eyeball muscle
Area contained within the temporal lobe for receiving and interpreting impulses from the ear
Auditory area
Anterior region below the cerebrum
Brain stem
Lobe that lies inferior to the lateral sulcus and folds under the hemisphere on each side
Temporal lobe
Connects the third and fourth ventricles
Cerebral aqueduct
Contains nerve fibers that carry impulses to and from the centers located above and below it
The pons
Has reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing
Impulses for pain, touch, temperature, deep muscle sense, pressure, and vibrations; come from receptors widely distributed throughout the body
General sensory impulses
Coordinates voluntary muscles; maintains balance and muscle tone
Folds in the cortex forming elevated portions
Connects cerebrum with lower portions of the brain
Located between the pons and the spinal cord
Medulla Oblongata
Formed by the separation of the dura mater in certain places to provide venous channels for the drainage of blood coming from the brain tissue
Dura sinuses
Layer of the meninges attached to the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater
Three layers of fibrous membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
Helps maintain balance in standing, walking, and sitting as well as during more strenuous activities
Deep groove that separates the cerebral hemispheres
Longitudinal fissure
Cranial nerves that contain all or mostly motor fibers
Lobe that occupies the superior part of each hemisphere and lies posterior to the central sulcus
Parietal lobe
An important connecting link between the cerebellum and the rest of the nervous system
The pons
Site for conscious thought, memory, reasoning, and abstract mental functions, all localized within specific lobes
Area contained within the gyrus just anterior to the central sulcus in the frontal lobe which provides conscious control of skeletal muscles
Primary motor area
Interbrain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem
Membrane is loosely attached to the deepest of the meninges by weblike fibers, allowing a space for the movement of CSF
A loss or defect in language communication
four chambers in the brain where CSF is formed
Lobe that lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum
Occipital lobe
The retention of bits of information for a few seconds or a few minutes, after which the information is lost unless reinforced
Short term memory
Controls the muscles of respiration in response to chemical and other stimuli
Respiratory center
Regulates the contraction of smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls and thus controls blood flow and blood pressure
Vasomotor center
Controls the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system as well as the pituitary gland
A progressive meurologic condition characterized by tremors, rigidity of the limbs and joints, slow movement, and impaired balance
Parkinson disease
Made up of three parts: the vermis, and two lateral hemispheres
Region along the border between the cerebrum and the diencephalon
Limbic system
A brain disorder resulting from an unexplained degeneration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus
Alzheimer disease
An important band of white matter located at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure
Corpus callosum
Contains four bodies that act as centers for certain reflexes involving the eye and the ear
Supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries motor impulses to the larynx (voice box) and pharynx
The largest of the four ventricles are located in the two cerebral hemispheres
Lateral ventricles
Connects cerebrum and diencephalon with the spinal cord
Brain stem
Thickest and toughest layer of the meninges
Dura mater
Lobe that lies anterior to the central sulcus
Frontal lobe
Area where the speech muscles in the tongue, the soft palate, and the larynx are controlled
Motor speech area (Broca area)
Contains the respiratory center, cardiac center, and the vasomotor center
Medulla oblongata
Groove which curves along the side of each hemisphere and separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes
Lateral sulcus
Another region of the auditory cortex, functions in speech recognition and the meaning of words
Speech comprehension area (Wernicke area)
Controls muscles of facial expression; carries sensation of taste; stimulates small salivary glands and lacrimal (tear) gland
Maintains homeostasis, controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland
Masses of gray matter located deep within each cerebral hemisphere
Basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
Largest and uppermost portion of the brain
Area contained within the gyrus just behind the central sulcus in the parietal lobe where impulses from the skin, such as touch, pain, and temperature, are interpreted
Primary sensory area
Composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
Brain stem
Crainial nerves V through VIII originate in this portion of the brain
The pons
Area located in the medial part of the temporal lobe concerned with the sense of smell
Olfactory area
Vascular network in the ventricles of the brain that forms CSF by filtration of the blood and by cellular secretion
Choroid plexus
Globus pallidus
("pale globe"); medial to the putamen and "connected" to it; divided into lateral (external) and medial (internal) segments; separated from the thalamus by the fibers of the internal capsule
The posterior limb, genu, and retrolenticular portion of the internal capsule are supplied primarily by the ______ branches of the _____ artery
middle cerebral
Lentiform nucleus
putamen and globus pallidus

not related embryologically but which are joined
The ventral part of the "C" of the lateral ventricles is made by the _______ horn which is located in the lobe
temporal or inferior; temporal
list the basal ganglia
1 caudate
2 putamen
3 globus pallidus
4 amygdala complex

other nuclei, for example the claustrum, may also be included as part of the basal ganglia
The _______ are a group of nuclei lying deep within the cerebral hemispheres which are derived from the x _____ in development
basal ganglia (or more correctly, basal “nuclei”); basal ganglia (or more correctly, basal “nuclei”)
the three major “limbs” of the internal capsule
anterior, genu, and posterior limbs
Corpus striatum components
1 caudate
2 putamen
3 globus pallidus

("striped" body; in anterior portions, fibers of the internal capsule push apart the caudate and putamen, giving the area a "striped" appearance)
Extinction phenomena
is used to describe a situation in which only the proximal stimulus is perceived, with extinction of the distal.
drugs that can improve memory
CNS stimulants, cholinergic agents
drugs that can degrade memory
benzodiazapines, anti-cholinergic drugs