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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
fear and fear conditioning is a function of the what?
amygdala

what is the mental storage of information about words that include semantic information?

mental lexicon

words and meaning is what kind of information?

semantic

how words are combined to form sentences is what kind of information?

syntactic

ortho graphic is ____ based

vision

_____ is sound based

phonological

in the cortex their are lesions in the brain that correlate with selective deficits in naming persons, animals, or tools.


the top region names what?

persons

in the cortex their are lesions in the brain that correlate with selective deficits in naming persons, animals, or tools.


the bottom region names what?

tools

in the cortex their are lesions in the brain that correlate with selective deficits in naming persons, animals, or tools.


the middle region names what?





animals


"every morning at breakfast the boy would plant" this type of violition is wrong meanings/answers and drives what neurons?

N400

"every morning at breakfast the eggs would eat" is a syntactic shift/ occurs in parietal site in relation. this drives what neurons?

P600

vowels and consonants (aeyoubmg) are ____ phonemes.

voiced

consonants (pstk) are ____ phoenemes.


*these are defined by where they are articulated.

voiceless

____ is the building blocks of spoken language, smallest units of sound that make difference to meaning.




*for example the only difference in cat and tap is c vs. t

phonemes

language disorders, deficits in comprehension or production of language resulting from neurological production of language resulting from neurological damage is what?

aphasia

_______ has had damage to the area of brain responsible planning speech production and this have marked difficulty producing speech

broca's

___ results from damage to the area of the brain responsible for planning speech comprehension

wernicke's

where is wernicke's located?

in the posterior third of the superior temporal gyrus

What kinds of aphasia would result from damage to phonological lexicon areas and speech planning areas

conduction aphasia

what is the disorder that results from damage between the connection of Wernicke’s & Broca’s areas. People with this type of aphasia have problems producing speech.

conduction aphasia

Where is the Broca's area located?


which lobe?


near what area?

left side of frontal lobe


near primary motor cortex

Where is Wernicke's area located?which lobe?near what area?

in the temporal lobe


near primary auditory cortex

how do the hemispheres communicate?

corpus callosum

what is the transient representations of task-relevant information. These representations may be related to information that has just been activated from long-term memory or something recently experienced. Representations in working memory guide behavior in the present, constituting what has been called “the blackboard of the mind.”

working memory

How does the n-back task reveal the limited capacity of working memory?

It reveals the limited capacity because working memory is constantly being updated. It requires both the maintenance and manipulation of information in working memory.

what is proposed to engage executive control, monitor performance. This structure was assumed to be a component of the limbic system helping to modulate autonomic responses during painful or threatening situations.

anterior cingulate cortex

Which part of the cortex is differentially engaged when processing self-referent information?

mPFC

what is the enhanced memory for information processed in relation to the self.

self-referent information

When is the default mode network activated?

The default mode it activated when focused on self

When is the default mode network deactivated?

it is deactivated when engaging in a cognitive task, when focusing on things not about the self.

The inside of the cell is more negative due to large negatively charged proteins.


The sodium potassium pump lets ____ OUT


and ____ IN

3Na+ GOES OUT


2K GOES IN


*The sodium-potassium pump maintains this by pumping more positive ions out of the cell than it pumps in.

______ is a change in the membrane potential in which the electrical current inside of the cell becomes more negative

HYPERPOLARIZATION


*hyperpolarized membrane potential is farther from the firing threshold

___ is a change in the membrane potential in which the electrical current inside the cell becomes less negative

DEPOLARIZATION


*depolarized membrane potential is closer to the firing threshold

what is formed by transmembrane proteins ( Na, K) that create pores, actual passageways across the membran

ion channels

the ___ system is the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

the ____ system is a courier network that delivers sensory information to the CNS and then conducts the motor commands of the CNS to control muscles of the body; anything outside the brain and spinal cord.

peripheral nervous system

The general somatic ______ (GSAs) carry information from the periphery (outside environment) into the CNS (central nervous system). The GSAs send information regarding temperature, pain, touch, and proprioception (the position and movement of the musculoskeletal system).

afferents

The general somatic _____ (GSEs) carry information away from the CNS and towards the skeletal muscles. The GSEs control the movement of the musculoskeletal system.

efferents

anatomical terms:


_____ is toward the middle

medial

anatomical terms:_____ is toward the side

lateral

anatomical terms:_____ is toward the back

dorsal

anatomical terms:_____ is toward the stomach

ventral

anatomical terms:_____ is toward the head

anterior/rostral

anatomical terms:_____ is toward the tail

posterior/caudal

what are large treelike processes of neurons that receive inputs from other neurons at locations called synapses and postsynaptic, after synapses?

dendrites

what is a large treelike processes of neurons that receive inputs from other neurons at locations called synapses. postsynaptic, after synapses?

axon of a neuron

what are regions of the nervous system composed of millions of individual axons, each surrounded by myelin?

white matter

what are regions of the nervous system that contain primarily neuronal cell bodies?

grey matter

what are the subdivisions of the cortex? (4)

parietal lobe


occipital lobe


temporal lobe


central sulcus (divides frontal & pareital)

what separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes?

sylvian lateral fissures

the occipital lobe is demarcated from the parietal and temporal lobes by the ________________ on the brain’s dorsal surface and the preoccipital notch located on the ventrolateral surface

parieto-occipital sulcus

who identified 52 regions of the brain according to differences in cellular morphology and organization, but a combination of the cytoarchitectonic and functional descriptions of the cortex is probably the most effective in dividing the cerebral cortex into meaningful units.

Broadman

what cushions the brain and spinal cord?


* it's located in the internal ventricles of the nervous system providing internal support.

CSF = cerebrospinal fluid

what does the CSF do?

fluid allows the brain to float to help offset the pressure that would be present if the brain were merely sitting on the base of the skull

There are three layers of the embryonic gastrula.


ectoderm-mesoderm-endoderm.




what does the ectoderm develop into?

nervous system, outer skin, lens of eye, inner ear, hair

There are three layers of the embryonic gastrula.ectoderm-mesoderm-endoderm.


what does the mesoderm develop into?

skeletal system, voluntary muscle

There are three layers of the embryonic gastrula.ectoderm-mesoderm-endoderm.




what does the endoderm develop into?

gut, digestive

_____ is the injection of electrical current in the vicinity of a group of neurons of interest in order to induce neural activity. _______allows the experimenter to manipulate normal neural activity and observe the consequences on behavior. (impair or restore function)

MICROSTIMULATION

the "what" pathway is the _____ pathway

ventral

the "where" pathway is the ____ pathway

dorsal

which pathway creates representations of color, shape, form, and physical or visual characteristics. It does not respond to spatial cues, and its differentiation is object-specific. It identifies information about objects. includes areas V1, V4, and IT. Goes to the temporal, interotemporal, and occipital lobes.

"what"/ventral pathway

v1, v4, and IT belong to which pathway?

"what"/ventral pathway

which pathway involves recognition of motion, speed, depth, and identifies other aspects of visual space and location. The dorsal pathway is important in the process of attention, because it changes our attention and the direction of attention. (e.g. where we move to focus eyes towards, etc.) includes area MT/V5. Goes to the parietal lobe.

"where"/dorsal pathway

areas MT/V5 belong to which pathway?

"where"/dorsal pathway

which specific region in the "where"/dorsal pathway that moves toward the parietal lobe and it Recognizes motion, size, and orientation in visual space?

MT/V5

which specific region in the "what"/ventral pathway that moves toward the parietal lobe and it Recognizes color, shape, and form?

V4

which specific region in the "where"/dorsal pathway that moves toward the infertemporal lobe and it Recognizes faces and facial expression?

IT

what is the difference in when a sound reaches each of the two ears?

interaural timing differences

what is the difference in intensity at the two ears called?

interaural intensity differences

What physical stimuli do mechanoreceptors detect?

things that touch us

What physical stimuli do Nociceptors detect?

pain, tissue damage, temperature

this kind of agnosia is when there are failures in object recognition linked to problems in perceptual processing and is a ventral stream disorder

apperceptive

this kind of agnosia: is reversed apperceptive, it is when people who derive normal visual representations but cannot use this information to recognize things

associative

this kind of agnosia: form of agnosia associated with deficits in the recognition of objects due to the failure to group and integrate the component parts into a coherent whole. Patients with this deficit can faithfully reproduce drawings of objects; however, their percept is of isolated unconnected parts or contours.

itegrative

what is a vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, often resulting in reduced vision. These involuntary eye movements can occur from side to side, up and down, or in a circular pattern. As a result, both eyes are unable to hold steady on objects being viewed.

nystagmus