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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What embryonic layer is the neural plate derived from?
Outer Layer
What week does the neural tube close?
4th wk
Which neuropore closes first?
anterior or cranial neuropore
What happens if the posterior neuropore fails to close?
spina bifida
What happens if the anterior neuropore fails to close?
Where are the basal plates located and what kind of cells do they give rise to?
They are located ventrally or anteriorly and they give rise to motor or efferent cells.
Where are the alar plates located and what kind of cells do they give rise to?
They are located dorsally or posteriorly and give rise to sensory of afferent cells
What are the three primary vesicles of the brain?
rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, prosencephalon
The rhombencephalon also known as the hind brain gives rise to what 2 structures and what do they develop into?
Myelencephalon - medulla
Metencephalon - pons and cerebellum
What does the mesencephalon become?
What does the prosencephalon differentiate into and what do those structures become?
diencephalon - thalamus, hypo, sub, epi and post lobe of pituitary
Telencephalon - cerebral cortes, basal ganglia, white matter
What kinds of things do neural crest cells become
GANGLIA - sensory, dorsal root
Schwann cells
What is the myelinating cell of the PNS?
Schwann cell which myelinate a singe axon at a time
What is the myelinating cell of the CNS?
OLigodendrocyte which myelinates multiple axons at one time
What is the embryonic origin of the choroid plexus?
Roof Plate
WHat specific structure does the cerebellum develop from?
Rhombic lips which are the dorsolateral aspect of the alar plates
What is the amygdala derived from?
What is the anterior lobe of the pituitary derived from?
Rathke's pouch
What are common symptoms of hydrocephalus?
vomitting, head aches, cranial nerve dysfunc, problem with aquisition of motor skills, problems breathing
What causes hydrocephalus?
Buildup of CSF
What is syringomyelia?
Bilateral segmental loss of pain and temperature
What is periventricular leukomalacia?
When the arteries of the cerebrum do no adequately supply the ventricle and necrosis occurs around ventricle due to poor vascularization.
What are the 2 areas where neural stem cells can be found?
Subventricular zone
Hippocampus - subgranular zone of dentate gyrus
What inhibits and excites neurogenesis?
Stress --> inhibit via increased glucocorticoids
Exercise --> excite
What is the sensory modality of meissner's corpuslce?
Light touch
What is the sensory modality of Pacinian Corpuscle?
deep pressure and vibration
What is the sensory modality of Krause end bulb?
What is the sensory modality of Ruffini Corpuscle
What is the sensory modality of Golgi Spindle?
Stretch in muscle
What is the sensory modality of golgi tendo organ?
Stretch in tendon
What is the sensory modality of bare nerve endings?
What are Schmidt Lanterman Clefts?
Loops of cytoplasm in btw myelin
Rank the neurons in order if increasing synapses/dendrites: purkinje, spinal cord, cerebral cortex
1) spinal cord
2) cerebral cortex
3) purkinje cells
What is affected in Lou Gehrig's dz or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
Motor cells are attacked
What is a possible cause of ALS?
MUtation in superoxide dimutase I gene
What is in the 3 layers of the cerebellum?
1) Outer = Molecular --> Axons + dendrites
2) Central = Granule Layer --> small neurons
3) Inner Layer = single row of purkinje cells
What is the difference between macroglia and microglia?
MAcroglia = astrocytes + oligodendrocytes
microglia = phagocytes
What is Adrenoleukodystrophy ( ALD)?
Degeneration of myelin and Adrenal Glands
What is multiple Sclerosis?
Demyelinating disease where antibodies attack myelin.
How do astrocytes store energy?
In form of glycogen
Where are fibrous astrocytes located compared to protoplasmic astrocytes?
fibrous - white matter
protoplasmic - gray matter
Which type of astrocyte has more glial filament?
What is the fnc of ependymal cells?
Keep CSF moving in the ventricles