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33 Cards in this Set

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Autonomic Nervous System

part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)

Axon

the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Brain

that part of the central nervous system contained with the cranium, compromising the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain

Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cord

Cerebellum

the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

Cerebrospinal fluid

the serum-like fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space, functioning as a shock absorber

Cerebrum

the main portion of the brain, occupying the upper part of the cranial cavity

Corpus Callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

Cranial Nerves

the set of twelve nerves found on each side of the head and neck and control the sensory and muscle functions of a number of organs such as the eyes, nose, tongue, face, and throat

Dendrite

a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dermatome

the area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single posterior spinal root

Diecephalon

the posterior part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain with the cerebral hemispheres, encloses the third ventricle, and contains the thalamus and hypothalamus

Frontal lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements

Hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward

Medulla Oblongata

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

Meninges

the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

Midbrain

the part of the brain stem located below the cerebral cortex and above the hindbrain

Myelin

the lipid-rich substance of the cell membrane of Schwann cells that coils to form the myelin sheath

Myelin Sheath

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next

Myotome

a group of muscles innervated from a single spinal segment

Neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Occipital Lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

Parasympathetic Nervous System

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

Parietal lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear receives sensory input for touch and body position

Peripheral Nervous System

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Pons

that part of the central nervous system lying between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain, ventral to the cerebellum

Reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

Somatic Nervous System

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles

Spinal Cord

the thick whitish cord of nerve tissues that extend from the medulla oblongata down through the spinal column and from which the spinal nerves branch off to various parts of the body

Sympathetic Nervous System

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

Temporal lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears,includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

Thalamus

the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on the top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Ventricles

a small cavity or chamber, as in the brain or heart