Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/23

Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Capsid

protectiveprotein coat

Virion

A mature infectiveparticle

HIV

causative agent for AIDS

AIDS

profound immunosuppression that leads to opportunisticinfections and malignancies not commonly foundin patients with healthy immune defenses

Reverse Transcriptase

Viral enzyme used to convert its RNA strands to double-stranded DNA

Integrase

enzyme unique toHIV used to incorporate the viral DNA into the host's chromosomes

Protease

viral enzyme that cleaves some of the proteins associated with the HIV DNA,enabling the virion to infect other T4 lymphocytes

Retrovirus

enveloped viruses that replicate in a host cell through the process of reverse transcription

Latent Phase

Dormant phase when patients may be assymptomatic and may not realize that they are infected

CD4 receptor

Preferred target for HIV

How Is HIV Spread?

Infection with HIV occurs by exposure to contaminatedbody fluids, most commonly blood or semen. Transmissionmay occur through sexual activity (oral, anal, or vaginal)or through contact of infected fluids with broken skin,mucous membranes, or needlesticks. Newborns can receivethe virus during birth or from breast-feeding.

Viral load

Measure of the amount HIV RNA present in the patient's blood

How do we stop the spread of HIV? (Interventions)

Promote testing


Prophylactic treatment in high risk populations


Use sterile syringes


Encourage safe sex practices



Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)

Prototype: Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT)


Action: As the reverse transcriptase enzymebegins to synthesize viral DNA, it mistakenly uses zidovudine as one of thenucleosides, thus creating a defective DNA strand


Adverse Effects: weakness, fatigue, headache, diarrhea


Misc: Used to reduce transmission from mother to baby.

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI)

Prototype: Efavirenz (Sustiva)


Action: Inhibits reverse transcriptase


Adverse Effects: rashes, dizziness, sleep disorders, fatigue


Misc: Once daily dosing. Preferred initial treatment. Penetrates CSF.

Protease Inhibitor

Prototype: Lopinavir with Rotonavir (Kaletra)


Action: Inhibits protease


Adverse Effects: Diarrhea most frequently reported. Lipodystrophy with long term use. Headache, nausea, vomiting.


Misc: Preferred initial treatment. May exacerbate DM.

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor

Only Approved Drug: Raltegravir (Isentress)


Action: inhibits the action of integrase


Adverse Effects: Insomnia,fatigue, headache, and GI-related symptoms such as diarrheaand nausea

What are Fusion/Entry Inhibitors and why are they used?

Examples: Enfuviritide (Fuzeon), Celsentri/maraviroc (Selzentry)


Action: block entry/fusion into healthy CD4 cells




These are used for patients who are resistant to other treatment.

What is HAART and why is it used?

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which is the simultaneous use of multiple drugs from multiple classes. Used to reduce the probability of resistance and reduce HIV RNA to its lowest level.

Why do treatment failures occur?

Client intolerance of adverse effects


Client non-adherence to complex drug regimens


Emergence of resistant strains


Genetic variability

How can we help prevent treatment failure?

Educate pt on importance of adherence, education is key


Pt should be tested for resistance


Pills with combinations of medications used if possible

What are the two most important labs to monitor in an HIV infected person?

CD4 levels


Viral load

What are the therapeutic goals of HIV treatment?

Reduce HIV RNA load in the blood


Increased lifespan


Higher quality of life


Restore or preserve immunologic function


Decrease risk of transmission from mother to baby