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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


protectiveprotein coat


A mature infectiveparticle


causative agent for AIDS


profound immunosuppression that leads to opportunisticinfections and malignancies not commonly foundin patients with healthy immune defenses

Reverse Transcriptase

Viral enzyme used to convert its RNA strands to double-stranded DNA


enzyme unique toHIV used to incorporate the viral DNA into the host's chromosomes


viral enzyme that cleaves some of the proteins associated with the HIV DNA,enabling the virion to infect other T4 lymphocytes


enveloped viruses that replicate in a host cell through the process of reverse transcription

Latent Phase

Dormant phase when patients may be assymptomatic and may not realize that they are infected

CD4 receptor

Preferred target for HIV

How Is HIV Spread?

Infection with HIV occurs by exposure to contaminatedbody fluids, most commonly blood or semen. Transmissionmay occur through sexual activity (oral, anal, or vaginal)or through contact of infected fluids with broken skin,mucous membranes, or needlesticks. Newborns can receivethe virus during birth or from breast-feeding.

Viral load

Measure of the amount HIV RNA present in the patient's blood

How do we stop the spread of HIV? (Interventions)

Promote testing

Prophylactic treatment in high risk populations

Use sterile syringes

Encourage safe sex practices

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI)

Prototype: Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT)

Action: As the reverse transcriptase enzymebegins to synthesize viral DNA, it mistakenly uses zidovudine as one of thenucleosides, thus creating a defective DNA strand

Adverse Effects: weakness, fatigue, headache, diarrhea

Misc: Used to reduce transmission from mother to baby.

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI)

Prototype: Efavirenz (Sustiva)

Action: Inhibits reverse transcriptase

Adverse Effects: rashes, dizziness, sleep disorders, fatigue

Misc: Once daily dosing. Preferred initial treatment. Penetrates CSF.

Protease Inhibitor

Prototype: Lopinavir with Rotonavir (Kaletra)

Action: Inhibits protease

Adverse Effects: Diarrhea most frequently reported. Lipodystrophy with long term use. Headache, nausea, vomiting.

Misc: Preferred initial treatment. May exacerbate DM.

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor

Only Approved Drug: Raltegravir (Isentress)

Action: inhibits the action of integrase

Adverse Effects: Insomnia,fatigue, headache, and GI-related symptoms such as diarrheaand nausea

What are Fusion/Entry Inhibitors and why are they used?

Examples: Enfuviritide (Fuzeon), Celsentri/maraviroc (Selzentry)

Action: block entry/fusion into healthy CD4 cells

These are used for patients who are resistant to other treatment.

What is HAART and why is it used?

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which is the simultaneous use of multiple drugs from multiple classes. Used to reduce the probability of resistance and reduce HIV RNA to its lowest level.

Why do treatment failures occur?

Client intolerance of adverse effects

Client non-adherence to complex drug regimens

Emergence of resistant strains

Genetic variability

How can we help prevent treatment failure?

Educate pt on importance of adherence, education is key

Pt should be tested for resistance

Pills with combinations of medications used if possible

What are the two most important labs to monitor in an HIV infected person?

CD4 levels

Viral load

What are the therapeutic goals of HIV treatment?

Reduce HIV RNA load in the blood

Increased lifespan

Higher quality of life

Restore or preserve immunologic function

Decrease risk of transmission from mother to baby