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78 Cards in this Set

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Electric Counterpoint


structure

> two main sections with a coda


> each main section is then subdivided into four smaller sections, which are defined by changes in key and texture

Electric Counterpoint


Tonality and Harmony

> tonal ambiguity: keeps the listener guessing about the key


> starts in E minor, changes to C minor


> ends on an E5 chord

Electric Counterpoint


Dynamics

> limited use of dynamics as they depend on texture

Electric Counterpoint


Rhythm

> changes between 3/2 and 12/8


> made up of rhythmic layered ostinati which are phase shifted

Electric Counterpoint


Tempo

> Very fast


> Does not change

Electric Counterpoint


Texture

> Polyphonic and repetitive


> Texture always remains fairly constant but always seems to be shifting due to panning and interweaving rhythms

Electric Counterpoint


Instrumentation

> 7 electric guitars


> 2 bass guitars


> One part played by a live performer, the rest are recorded

Electric Counterpoint


Melody

> Very repetitive


> Uses minimalist techniques such as additive melody


> Uses accents

MOBY


Structure

> song form


> intro, outro, verse, chorus, break


> all 8-bar section

MOBY

Tonality and Harmony


> Verse : Am Em G D


> Chorus: C Am C Am F C F C

MOBY


Rhythm

> 4/4

> syncopated rhythms


> sustained rhythms


MOBY


Tempo

> steady, moderate tempo

> 98 bpm


MOBY


Texture

> mainly homophonic, with chords and a melody

> layered / builds


> call and response used


MOBY


Instrumentation

> akai sampler used (unclean samples)

> all synthetic


> piano, sub bass, synths


> Roland TR909 drum machine


> echo, reverb, delay, telephone EQ

MOBY


Melody

> samples from a 1950s gospel choir


> vocals hold the melody


> male vocals in verse, female vocals in chorus

Grace


Structure

> song form

> intro, outro, verse, chorus, prechorus, middle 8, link


> the 'link' uses intro material


Grace


Tonality and Harmony

> E minor

> uses chromatic and extended chords


> uses power chords


Grace


Rhythm

> 12/8 --> feels like 4/4


> use of semi-quavers


> use of syncopation

Grace


Tempo

> 64 bpm

Grace


Texture

> mostly homophonic (chords and melody)

Grace


Instrumentation

> 3 electric guitars - distorted

> 1 acoustic guitar


> 1 bass guitar


> vocals (lead and backing)


> synth strings


> reverb, EQ and phaser used


Grace


Melody

> vocals have the melody

> wide vocal range - 2 octaves


> falsetto


> mainly syllabic, but sometimes melismatic e.g. 'fire'


> some improvised vocals


Something's Coming


Structure

> short intro

> A and B section which are repeated and reappear


Something's Coming


Tonality and Harmony

> starts in D major

> moves to C major


> major key suggests hopefulness and joy

Something's Coming


Dynamics

> pp at start - builds anticipation

> builds to ff with excitement and hope


> accents used to emphasise words and rhythms


Something's Coming


Rhythm

> 3/4 , however sometimes feels like 6/8

> crotchets in the left hand, quavers in the right


> bars 82-85 : cross rhythms


> bar 4 : push rhythms used to show anticipation




Something's Coming


Tempo

> 176 bpm

> fast - shows excitement


Something's Coming


Texture

> mainly homophonic

Something's Coming


Instrumentation

> large orchestra

> woodwind sections were large


> percussion sections were even bigger


> Latin American instruments used such as castanets, guiro and maracas


Something's Coming


Melody

> based on short riffs, or motifs

> uses notes from the blues scale


> tritones used (D and G#) also known as the 'devils's interval'


All Blues


Structure

> head arrangement


> head sections with solos inbetween

All Blues


Tonality and Harmony

> modal jazz

> based in G major


> uses extended and altered chords



All Blues


Dynamics

> dynamics only change as a result of texture


All Blues


Rhythm

> 6/4

> syncopation heavily used


All Blues


Tempo

> steady, laid back 'swing' feel

All Blues


Texture

> homophonic

> ostinato riff which sounds like melody but is an accompaniment



All Blues


Instrumentation

> drums played with brushes

> only snare and hi-hats used to keep the beat


> solos from; piano, trumpet, alto sax, tenor sax


> upright bass


> trumpet uses a mute


> John Coltrane, Julian Adderly, Jimmy Cobb


All Blues


Melody

> solos are based around modes rather than chords

Raindrop Prelude


Structure

> Ternary form : A,B,A

> Coda at the end


> when the A section return, it is shorter


> represents a storm


Raindrop Prelude


Tonality and Harmony

> A section : Db major

> B section : C# minor


> Db and C# are enharmonic


Raindrop Prelude


Dynamics

> A section quieter, B section louder

> extreme, wide ranging dynamics


> B section is the loudest point


Raindrop Prelude


Rhythm

> 4/4

> some dotted rhythms in the A section


> nothing too complex


Raindrop Prelude


Tempo

> Rubato : free tempo


Raindrop Prelude


Texture

> mainly homophonic

> single monophonic line into the coda


> pedal note used : G# / Ab



Raindrop Prelude


Instrumentation

> piano, uses sustain pedal

Raindrop Prelude


Melody

> A section: melody is in the right hand

> B section: melody is in the left hand


> ornamentation of melodies


> acciaccaturas used (grace notes)


Peripetie


Structure

> broadly in Rondo form

> sections are developed to such an extent that they are hardly recognisable



Peripetie


Tonality and Harmony

> Atonal

> Uses all 12 semitones (serialism)


Peripetie


Dynamics

> extreme use of dynamics

> ppp to fff (dramatic shifts)


> sometimes instruments are played so quietly that they can barely be heard


Peripetie


Rhythm

> use of short triplet quavers

> short note durations


Peripetie


Tempo

> changes throughout

> 'serr rasch' : very quick


> 'etwas ruhiger' : somewhat calmer


Peripetie


Texture

> lots of variation

> overall texture is polyphonic and very complex


> texture seems to thin dramatically after the loud hexachords


Peripetie


Instrumentation

> instruments used to their full pitch range

> mutes used in the brass section


> explores instrumental colour


Peripetie


Melody

> hexachords and compliments used

> most of the ideas that are going to be used in the whole piece appear in the first section


> use of extended chords


> 12 tone row (serialism)


> Prime, Retrograde, Inversion


Handel


Structure

> chorus from an oratorio

> other parts of an oratorio include; aria, recitative, overture


> 4 different musical ideas


Handel


Tonality and Harmony

> major affection

> A major, changes to E major and B major


> major key and happy religious lyrics create a joyful mood


Handel


Dynamics

> little contrast

> dynamics are a result of texture


Handel


Rhythm

> 3/4

Handel


Tempo

> Allegro (lively)

> changes to Adagio (slow) at the end


Handel


Texture

> mainly polyphonic

> last bar is homophonic (chords)


Handel


Instrumentation

> chamber orchestra

> two violins, a viola, a cello, SATB choir

> strings mirror SATB choir


> bass continuo played on an organ


Handel


Melody

> melody 1: syllabic, made from the notes of the tonic chord

> melody 2: melismatic, downward sequence


> melody 3: melismatic, repetitive sequence


> melody 4: syllabic, based on a pedal note (only two notes used)



Mozart


Structure

> sonata form


> exposition, development, recapitulation


> coda at the end

Mozart


Tonality and Harmony

> first subject: Gm

> second subject: Bb


> development section modulates to many keys, avoiding the tonic


> recapitulation, second subject is now also in Gm


Mozart


Dynamics

> gradual changes in dynamics

> lots of crescendos and diminuendos


Mozart


Rhythm

> 4/4

> rhythmically fairly simple


Mozart


Tempo

> Allegro (lively, fast)

Mozart


Texture

> mainly homophonic

> uses call and response / imitation


Mozart


Instrumentation

> full classical orchestra including violins, cello, viola, double bass, clarinet, oboe, flutes, bassoon, horns

> no trumpets or timpani which you would expect from a classical orchestra


Mozart


Melody

> two subjects introduced in the exposition

> strings mainly have melody


> only the first subject used in the development section


Skye Waulking Song


Structure

> strophic form

> intro, verse, verse, coda


> uses call and response


Skye Waulking Song


Tonality and Harmony

> In G major, has a modal feel

> entirely diatonic


> main chords: G, Em, C


Skye Waulking Song


Dynamics

> terraced dynamics (each section different)


> higher pitch = louder dynamics


> starts quietly


> louder when full band playing

Skye Waulking Song


Rhythm

> 12/8

> frequent syncopations in vocal lines


> use of cross-rhythms at the start created by a hi-hat


Skye Waulking Song


Tempo

> moderate (not marked on music)

Skye Waulking Song


Texture

> layered, contrapuntal texture


Skye Waulking Song


Instrumentation

> combines folk and rock instruments

> rock: synthesiser, bass guitar, drum kit


> folk: fiddle, accordion, uillean pipes, bouzouki


Skye Waulking Song


Melody

> pentatonic


> mainly syllabic


> alternates between 1 bar phrases