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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Klumpke paralysis
can occur during delivery
baby is breach w/ arms extended
->stretches lower brachial plexus from C8-T1
paralysis of intrinsic hand muscles, numbness along inner aspect of hand
Erb palsy
can occur during delivery
damage to C5-C6
causes 'waiter's tip arm'
->loss of flexion and supination by the biceps muscle
radial nerve lesions
cause wrist drop
ulnar nerve lesions
cause clawing of ring and little fingers
wasting of hypothenar muscles
Becker muscular dystropy
dystrophin mutation
->point mutations permit residual fxn of dystrophin molecule
(so better Px than Duchenne)
genetic deficiency of CAI-II
due to osteoclast dysfxn
manifests in infancy or childhood with bone fragility and recurrent fractures
peroneal nerve
common = neck of fibula
two branches:
->superficial: skin of dorsum of foot
->deep: dorsiflexion of the foot, toe extension, foot inversion
stapedius muscle is innervated by
the facial nerve

paralysis = hyperacusis
source of bone-forming cells following a fracture
damaged periosteum
-some of these cells can become lost and form inappropriate bone that impairs joint movement [heterotopic ossification]
hyaline cartilage is very vulnerable to infection because
it is relatively avascular
so immune system can't access it
also, cartilage is not innervated
lower trunk of the brachial plexus
C8, T1
intrinsic muscles of hand
->ad and abduction of digits
->opposition of the thumb
*injured when reaching up forcefully
upper trunk of brachial plexus
C5, C6
muscles in proximal upper limb, shoulder and axilla
does not innervate hand muscles
arises from clavicle and acromion
innervated by axillary nerve
->damaged by fracture/dislocation of humeral neck
clubbing is associated with
lung cancer, mesothelioma, bronchiectasis, cirrhosis
other flexors of the elbow besides the long head of the biceps tendon
brachialis and brachioradialis
muscle that protects underlying structures of the clavicle [subclavian vessels and brachial plexus]
subclavius muscle
aphthous ulcer
very painful lesions of oral mucosa
unclear etiology
more common in age 10-20
recurrent shallow ulcers w/erythematous border
injury to long thoracic nerve
=winging of the scapula
(innervates serratus anterior)
skin epithelial stem cells are located
in hair follicles and sweat glands of the dermis
how does Botox weaken muscle?
prevents fusion of motor neuron secretory vesicles with the nerve membrane (via cleavage of v-SNARE)
->prevents release of ACh
pancytopenia suggests what?
decrease in marrow cavity size

may be due to bony overgrowth (in processes like osteopetrosis)

*anemia is refractory to Tx
spongiotic dermatitis
seen in cases of contact dermatitis (like poison ivy)
interosseus muscles are innervated by
the ulnar nerve
median nerve innervates
all thenar muscles:
--abductor pollicus brevis
--flexor pollicus brevis
--opponens pollicus
dermatitis herpetiformis
strongly ass'd with celiac disease
life long, intermittent course
papules and vesicles on an erythematous base
->extensor surfaces of the extremities and buttocks
histo: papillary dermal poly abscesses w/IgA and C3 deposits
Tx: dapsone
Gaucher crisis
acute ischemia to the bone, usually in pelvis, femoral head
pain sudden, progressive, >2 wks
usually follows viral infxn
also see osteosclerotic bone and corticomedullary osteonecrosis
fibromyalgia [fibrositis]
women btwn 20-50
widespread chronic muscle pain that improves w/exercise
chronic fatigue and severe headaches also seen
phys exam = 'trigger points'
objective/lab signs of inflammation are absent
Tx: TCAs [amitriptyline]
acanthosis nigricans
looks like moles, warts but is due to epidermal hyperplasia
seen in obesity, DM, and in pts with underlying visceral adenocarcinomas
buccinator muscle paralysis
compression of the facial nerve w/in the facial canal [Bell's palsy]
food and saliva accumulate btwn teeth and cheek
structures in intercostal space
from superior to inferior:
nerve [most likely to be damaged]
obturator nerve
innervates muscles of medial compartment of the thigh
->adductor longus, brevus and magnus, and gracilus
cephalic vein
arises from elbow along anterolateral surface of arm
found in deltopectoral groove
->btwn deltoid + pect major
(diagonally below clavicle)
most common site for development of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
head and neck

also develops in GU tract and extremities
how do corticosteroids contribute to fractures?
inhibit proliferation and fxn of osteoblasts
stimulate formation and activity of osteoclasts
bone disease associated with McCune Albright syndrome
polyostic fibrous dysplasia
->local bony defects with unmineralized whorls of connective tissue

*also see Coast of Maine cafe au lait spots and precocious puberty
Trendelenberg sign
tests gluteus medius and minimus

ask pt to stand on one leg, and they fall to the opposite side
myositis ossificans
usually occurs in young adults following trauma
area of damage heals with fibroblastic proliferation that ossifies
Xray= flocculant radiodensities surrounding a radiolucent center
hallmark of osteomalacia/rickets
widened osteoid seams due to poor mineralization of the bone

trabeculae are normal in number and size but don't mineralize effectively
most common form of skin cancer in albinism
squamous cell
HLA type associed with psoriasis
allopecia areta
autoimmune attack on hair follicles
has a wide range of clinical severity: more severe can involve the entire body surface
silver sulfadazine cream
bacteriacidal for gram positives, negatives and fungi

prevention/Tx of wound sepsis in 2nd and 3rd degree burn pts