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351 Cards in this Set

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Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980)
schemas and features of
Piaget. Psychological structures that present an organized way of making sense of experiences
Adaptation- building schemas through interaction with environment. Can adapt by:
Assimilation uses current schemas to understand the world
Accommodation creates new schemas or adjusts existing ones.
(Equilibrium=no change)
Organization takes place internally, children rearrange/change schematic structures to create interconnected cognitive system.
Piaget stages of development
1. sensorimotor (0-2 years)- infants think by interacting with the world through their senses
2. preoperational (2-7) - use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries. language, make-believe play
3. concrete observational (7-11) - reasoning becomes logical, non-abstract
4. formal operations (11 up) - sophisticated, hypothetical and abstract thinking
Follower of Freud
Stages o Psychosocial Development; focuses on question of identity, emphasizes role of society in development and personality formation
-Infant (birth-1 year)= Trust v Mistrust
-Toddler (1-3) = Autonomy v Shame/Doubt
-Pre-school (3-6) = Initiative v Guilt
-School-age (6-12) = Industry v Inferiority
-Adolescent (12-19) = Identity v Role Confusion
- Intimacy v Isolation
- Generativity v Stagnation
- Ego Integrity v Despair
Extension on Piaget's Theory,
Stages of Moral Development

Preconventional Level (up to age nine):
1. obedience/punishment (avoid punishment)
2. self-interest (whats in it for me?)

Conventional Level (age nine to adolescence):
Other Focused Morality
3. interpersonal accord/conformity (good boy)
4. authority/social order mainenance (societal laws)

Postconventional Level (adulthood):
Higher Focused Morality
5. social contract (laws/rules flexible, fluid)
6. universal ethical principles
Ecological Systems Theory: child develops within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Co-founder of Head Start
Microsystem - family, classroom, neighborhood
Mesosystem - connections between 2+ social settings
Exosystem - important external social forces
Macrosystem - pervasive sociocultural systems
Socialcultural Theory of Cognitive Development -
Cognitive development as a socially mediated process where adult support (called scaffolding) helps children master skills they can't do on their own.
1. Independent work
2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP)
3. Out of reach
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) in his book Frames of Mind. Claimed that pencil and paper IQ tests do not capture the full range of human intelligences, and that we all have individual profiles of strengths and weaknesses across multiple intelligence dimensions.
- Linguistic; words, reading, writing
- Logical/mathematical; patterns, relationships, best taught through logic games, riddles, concepts first details later
- Bodily/kinesthetic; taught through physical activity, hands-on, acting
- Musical; taught with lyrics, rhythms
- Spatial/visual; taught through drawings, verbal imagery
- Interpersonal (the ability to understand others); learning through dialogue, discussion
- Intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself); learning through independent study, introspection
- Naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world)
Margaret Mahler
Separation-Individuation Theory
1. Autistic phase 0-2mo, equilibrium with environment
2. Symbiotic phase 1-5mo, social smile, dim awareness of caretaker
3. Separation-Individuation phase 5-36mo
- differentiation from mother
- practicing locomotion
- reapproachment (awareness of physical separateness)
- object constancy (comfort at moms absence, knowledge she will return)
Developmental Delay
Term often used to encompass a variety of disabilities of infants or young children indicating that they are significantly behind the norm for development in one or more areas such as motor, cognitive, or language
Learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols; also known as a developmental reading disorder
Also known as developmental arithmetic disorder; a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation.
Learning disability characterized by difficulties with writing, including trouble with spelling, handwriting, or expressing thoughts on paper
Inability to perform coordinated movements despite normal function of the central and peripheral nervous systems and muscles
Executive Functioning
Cognitive processes including planning, making decisions, implementing strategies, inhibiting inappropriate behaviors, and using working memory to process information
Non-verbal learning disability
People with this disability may misunderstand non-verbal communications, or understand the communications but be unable to formulate an appropriate response. Eye contact can also be difficult for people with NLD, either because they are uncomfortable with maintaining it or because they do not remember that others expect it. Knowing when and how to use physical contact and recognizing emotions in others and expressing them for oneself can be problematic.
Aspberger Syndrome
On the autistic spectrum: no language delay, IQ normal or above average, language skills above average, strange or eccentric social behavior, restricted interests
Down Syndrome
A human congenital disease resulting from having an extra 21st chromosome, characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
Fragile X Syndrome
abnormality of the x chromosome caused by a defective FMR-1 gene and associated with mild to severe mental retardation and other health problems
Early Intervention
Birth-3 years: child's needs, developmental goals for child, and services to be provided documented in Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).
Early Childhood Education
3 to 5 years: child's needs, school readiness goals for child, and services to be provided documented in Individualized Education Plan (IEP).
Special Education Services
5 to 21 years: child's special educational needs, annual goals and objectives for child during school year, and services to be provided documented in Individualized Education Plan (IEP).
Identification of Gifted Students
general guidelines: student should have above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment.
Individualized Family Service Plan: documents and guides the early intervention process for children with disabilities and their families. It contains information about the services necessary to facilitate a child's development and enhance the family's capacity to facilitate the child's development. Through the IFSP process, family members and service providers work as a team to plan, implement, and evaluate
services tailored to the family's unique concerns, priorities, and resources.
Individual Education Plan:
-statement of performance level
- educational needs
- goals
- measurable objectives
- annual review
504 Plan
A legal document falling under the provisions of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It is designed to plan a program of instructional services to assist students with special needs who are in a regular education setting. Not an IEP, as is required for special education students, however, a student moving from a special education to a regular education placement could be placed under a 504 plan
Developmental Continuum for Writing
Exploration: Scribbles, marks on paper
Early Pre-Conventional: Drawing with details
Pre-Conventional: Drawing, random letters
Emergent: Pictures, letter/sound connection, attempts words, directionality
Developing: Meaning in text with words, spaces, sentences
Developing Discovery: Expanded statements, moving toward more development
Beginning: General topic developed w/ expanded list, simple sentences, some conventions
Novice: Specific topic with supporting details and expan- sions, simple organization
Bridging: Develops several ideas on surface of specific topic, some coherence and organization
Expanding: Explores topic with focus, beyond surface, control of some aspects of writer's craft
Independent: Developed focus, sufficiently adequate craft
Fluent: Expanded focus, purposeful crafting, moving toward complexity
Sophisticated: Insightful, expanded development with perspective, complexity, and significance, well-crafted
Techniques for generating writing topics
-Semantic Mapping
Cardinal Numbers
A whole number that answers the question "How many?"
Ordinal Numbers
Numbers that describe position or order (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
Nominal Numbers
Numbers used for identification only (ex: sports jersey)
Properties of Real Numbers
Commutative Property
In mult or add, the order of two numbers may be switched around and the answer is the same. Ex: a+b = b+a.
Associative Property
Changing the grouping of numbers in addition and multiplication will NOT change the value. Ex: (7 + 4) + 8 = 7 + (4 + 8)
2 x 2 (3y) = 3y(2 x 2)
Distributive Property
If a term is multiplied by addition terms in parenthesis, we need to "distribute" the multiplication over all the terms inside.
Ex: a(b + c) = ab + ac; ex: 4(3 + 8) = 4(3) + 4(8)
Density Property
There is always another real number that lies between any two real numbers.
Ex: between 5.61, 5.62 lies 5.611, 5.612, 5.613
Identity Property
Zero added to any number is the number itself. Zero is called the "additive identity."
Any number multiplied by 1 gives the number itself.
Number 1 is called the "multiplicative identity."
Inverse Property
The operation which undoes an operation/the opposite operation:
subtraction is the inverse of addition, addition is the inverse of subtraction etc.
Base 10 Numbering System
System that identifies place value. In the number 475, base ten refers to the position, the 5 is in the one's place, the 7 is in the ten's place and the 4 is in the hundred's place.
Converting a decimal to a fraction
To convert 0.75 to a fraction

1. Write down the decimal "over" the number 1
0.75 / 1
2. Multiply top and bottom by 10 for every number after the decimal point
0.75 × 100 / 1 × 100 = 75 / 100
3. Simplify the fraction
3 / 4
Order of Operations
parentheses, exponents, multiplication/division, addition/subtraction
Area of a triangle
A = ½ b × h
Area of a circle
A = π × r2
Area of a trapezoid
A = h(b1 + b2)/2
b1, b2 are the lengths of each base
Area of a parallelogram
b x h
Perimeter of a circle
P= 2πr or πd
Properties of Triangles
(1) sum of interior angles is 180°
(2) Triangle Inequality Theorem : The sum of the lengths of any 2 sides of a triangle must be greater than the third side
(3) The largest interior angle and side are opposite each other, and the same relationship occurrs between the smallest sized angle and side and the middle sized angle and side.
Area of a Rectangular Solid
L × W × H = A
Area of a Cylinder
A = π × r2 × h
Area of a Sphere
A = 4(π × r2)
Volume of a Sphere
V = 4/3(π × r3)
Complimentary Angles
Two angles that add up to 90 degrees
Supplementary Angles
Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees
Opposite (Vertical) Angles
The intersection of two lines (m1 and m3) form 4 angles. Opposite angles are equal (congruent).
Alternate Angles
Angles that lay outside the parallel lines and are on opposite sides of the transversal; They are congruent.
Equilateral Triangle
A triangle with 3 equal sides and all 3 angles equaling 60 degrees
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle with two equal sides and two equal angles.
Scalene Triangle
A triangle with no congruent sides or angles
Types of Angles
Acute Angles = 0 < x < 90
Right Angles = x = 90
Obtuse Angles = 90 < x < 180
Straight Angles = x = 180
Similar Shapes
Same shape but different size; corresponding sides are proportional
Mass = Density x Volume
Farenheit to Celcius conversion
ºF = ºC x 1.8000 + 32
ºC = .556 x (ºF - 32)
Jamestown, VA
1607, first English settlement, motived by economics, failed to prepare for winter months
Pilgrims (Puritans in England)
austere religious group landed in Plimouth in 1619
Mayflower Compact
agreement whereby all signatories would follow rules established by majority vote; first constitution ratified in colonies; symbol of democracy
13 Original Colonies
Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
British had to contend with other European powers interested in American conquest; British fought French and their allies for control of N. Am.; Britain kept control
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War; Britain's purse drained and colonists' sense of dependence on Britain decreased
Salutary Neglect
wartime policy whereby colonies operated relatively unsupervised while Britain was fighting war
Stamp Act of 1765
imposed tax on documents to help support cost of British troops; protested by colonists; repealed (gave confidence and desire for self-rule)
Townshend Act
"Indirect" taxes imposed on colonists (taxes on imports); opposition widespread; boycotts of goods and protests organized
Boston Massacre
1770; colonists fired upon; created martyrs (including Crispus Attucks)
Boston Tea Party
1773; colonists threw imported tea overboard in Boston Harbor; symbolic and incendiary act
Coercive Acts (a.k.a. Intolerable Acts to patriots)
imposed by British; closed harbor until tea had been paid for, increased power of royal officials in MA and allowed for quartering of British troops anywhere
First Continental Congress
1774; called for repeal of Intolerable Acts and gathering of local militias
First Battle of Revolution
April 1775; Lexington/Concord
Second Continental Congress
1775; American independence declared, Declaration of Independence adopted 1776
Declaration of Independence
"when in the course of human events....we hold these truths to be self-evident..."; largely attributed to the work of Thomas Jefferson; based on John Locke's philosophy that govt inherits powers from the people
Written in 1777 but allowed too much freedom for states. Rewritten and ratified after 1787
Shay's Rebellion
1786; poor farmers revolted against existing conditions in w. MA
Federalist Papers
written to support for Constitution in colonies by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
Bill of Rights
1791; enumerated the rights of citizens; appended to Constitution
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - purchased Louisiana Territory from France; ambitious agenda of territorial expansion; guaranteed uninhibited exploration beyond Mississippi River
Lewis and Clark
Set off in 1804; govt-funded expedition of new territory in name of scientific and geographic research
War of 1812
Conflict with the British; caused by: desire for northwest expansion, impressment of sailors by Navy, British support of Am. Indian tribes, etc. D.C. burned by British.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended War of 1812; restored relations between two nations
Monroe Doctrine
1823; James Monroe issued; asserted that new nation's dominance in Western Hemisphere and instructed European nations to cease their interference on American continents
Manifest Destiny
19th century belief; divine justification for moving westward into new lands; focus on expanding boundaries for sake of economy and clout of the nation
Missouri Compromise of 1820
agreement passed to regulate slavery in new states; Missouri accepted as slave state, Maine as free; drew imaginary line dividing Louisiana Territory into two, free above, slavery below
Compromise of 1850
law allowed new territories to decide matter of slavery themselves
Civil War Origins
Pro vs. Anti Slavery in new territories; southern concern for inevitability of Northern control; Fugitive Slave Act; Dred Scott Case; etc. 1861: 11 southern states seceded
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Required citizens to capture and return escaped slaves under penalty of fine; outraged abolitionists
Dred Scott Case of 1857
Supreme Court ruled that slaves who resided temporarily in free states were still slaves, and Congress did not have authority to exclude slavery from a territory; can only be free citizen through birth or naturalization
Battle of Gettysburg 1863
Confederate Army sustained crippling loss of manpower
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
issued by Lincoln; declared all slaves residing with Confederacy would be free; after this African American soldiers free to enlist
Grant and Sherman
Union generals
Confederate general; surrendered at Appomattox in 1865
1865-77; Johnson carried out Lincoln's plans after assassination; aimed at re-invigorating economy of country as a whole, improving plight of former slaves, reorganize southern states
by 1900, 200,000 miles of railroad track; increased trade and supported growing economy; factory jobs increase
U.S in WWI (in five phrases of less)
WW1 breaks out in 1914; Americans favor neutrality until brutal U-boat attacks; Wilson lobbies to enter war; 3 million US troops deployed (1917); War ends 1918
Great Depression
Stock Market Crash of 10/29/1929. By 1932, 24% of Americans unemployed.
New Deal
Franklin Roosevelt enacted these reforms including agricultural and business regulation, public works projects, farm relief, establishment of Social Security system
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 -- after Pres. Roosevelt led U.S. into war (before -- isolationism)
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6, 1945 - atomic bomb dropped first, Japan refuses to surrender, second atomic bomb dropped. Japan surrenders.
Domino Theory
if one country in a region falls to communism, neighbors will as well; justified Vietnam War
"we the people..."; highest law in U.S.; framework for government; 27 amendments so far (?); written in 1787; establishes system of checks and balances between three branches of govt.
First 10 amendments to Constitution; 1791; free speech, right to bear arms, protection from quartering, due process, protection from unreasonable search and seizure; trial by jury; etc.
"the rule of law"
no individual, organization, or govt body is above the law; our duty to follow and understand the law
Process of Creating a Law
representatives writes and introduces a bill; goes to a House of Rep committee and discussed/edited; debated and voted on in House; same thing then done in Senate. Committee blends House and Senate law and both have to approve final version. Then goes to president to be signed into law. Pres can sign, veto or ignore. If ignored and Congress is in session, after 10 days it becomes a law.
Massachusetts Constitution
Ratified in 1780. Oldest functioning constitution in the world. Protects rights of individual citizens and principles of federalism and popular sovereignty. Cities and Towns responsible for most govt. services.
Mayors and City Councils in MA
govern the cities, but towns are usually government by selectmen.
Board of Selectmen in MA
Usually elected for one- or two-year term.
Town Meeting in MA
tradition from Colonial times, still held regularly, allows direct participation in democratic process
Capitalist System
encourages innovation, competition, and an entrepreneurial spirit with aim of increased productivity and profit
great contribution is monotheism; area colonized (?) by Great Britain; modern state of Israel declared in 1948
Ancient Greece
lasting influence in science, philosophy, politics, games, literature, etc.; elements of democracy developed there; Draco - law belongs to all citizens; first democracy founded in Athens in approx. 500 BCE
Ancient Rome
conquered Greek dynasty; became regional power; conquered much of "known world"; Caesar - military conqueror and established calendar system; peace led to flourishing of arts and higher learning; began declining in third century
Pax Romana
First and second centuries CE - no major wars or internal conflicts; development of architecture, extensive road system, postal system; Roman law - fairness and constancy
Middle Ages (a.k.a. Dark Ages)
Post-Roman empire; church and feudal system exert power; political instability; Crusades - Christians vs. Muslims; Plague in 14th century
Feudal system
Nobles ruled over serfs (peasants); Serfs worked the land; Less powerful nobles (vassals) swore loyalty to powerful nobles, provided military protection
beginning of modern era - 1450; began in Italy; flourishing of arts and creativity; printing press in mid-15th century; Shakespeare; 14th-17th century
Renaissance HUMANISM
humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence
Occurred during Renaissance: challenged dominance of Roman Catholic church/papal authority; Luther - 95 Theses in 1517; Humanism/Renaissance played direct role in sparking Reformation
18th century (post-Renaissance); reason advocated as source of legitimacy and authority; question tradition; Locke - rights of natural people; Voltaire - supporter of social reform, human rights
French Revolution 1789 - 1804
Before - individual citizens' rights didn't exist; king/nobles/clergy in charge; rich vs. poor - HUGE separation; only poor taxed; France in trouble financially; people starving; Enlightenment ideals inspired revolutionaries; stormed the Bastille (symbol of nobility); absolutely monarchy soon gone; revolutionaries fought amongst themselves and executed many (Reign of Terror); war declared on France by other European nations; ended with Napoleon declaring himself Emperor of France
name of assembly of leaders of three estates -- nobility, clergy, commoners; met in May 1789 - to draft new tax policy; Third Estate (commoners) decided to declare itself the National Assembly and planned to create new constitution
French Rev. vs. Amer. Rev.
American Revolution officially began with a document, the Declaration of Independence; French Revolution officially began with an action, the Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. The most obvious difference was that the American Revolution resulted in the newly independent United States, whereas the French Revolution overthrew its own government. However, the French people were greatly impressed with the ideals of freedom and democracy sought by the new United States, and these greatly influenced their thinking.
Industrial Revolution - 18th to 19th century
began in Great Britain; major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times (wiki); intro of steam power
World War I causes
competition over resources in overseas colonies; Austria-Hungary vs. Serbia; Ferdinand assassination in 1914; other countries chose sides - Axis vs. Allies; began in 1914; Wilson tried to stay out; then sinking of Lusitania (128 U.S. died); Germany tried to get Mexico to join war and reclaim land from U.S.; U.S. joined in 1917; draft - 3 million people; ended in 1918
Treaty of Versailles
$33 billion in reparations from Germany to Allies; must accept blame for war (partly to blame for WWII); Germany lost land and all overseas colonies
World War II causes
Germany economically poor; bitter over loss of war; inflation high; high unemployment; govt. didn't have support of the people; Depression affected the world; rise of nationalism; turned to Hitler -- Nazis and Fascism; started building strong army (vs. Treaty of Versailles); Germany invaded Poland and war was declared by GB and France (1939); Japan on Germany's side; US stopped trading with Japan...then Pearl Harbor;
power is concentrated in a single dictator; reject individualism; extreme patriotism; celebrates military strength and brute force; individual freedoms gone; strong countries have right to invade and conquer weak ones; Nazism unique brand of Fascism that involved biological racism and antiSemitism
Appeasement - 1937-39
policy of letting Hitler do what he wanted building his army and invading Czechoslovakia despite being vs. Treaty of Versailles; allowed Germany to grow too strong
Cold War
the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939-1945) between the Communist World - primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies - and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies (wiki)
Marshall Plan
U.S. plan to aid in post-war European recovery
Perestroika ("restructuring") - mid-1980s
Gorbachev becomes more concerned with economic reform than arms race
Glasnost ("openness")
reduce corruption in Communist party and encourage increased contact with Western world
process where formerly European and U.S. colonies rejected foreign rule and protested further interference
Characteristics of Living Things
-composed of one or more cells
basic structural and functional unit of all living things (named after rooms in monasteries)
Cell membranes contain...
genetic material, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, salts, and other substances - (organic compounds b/c they all contain carbon)
composed of molecules
smallest particles of a substance that retain chemical/physical properties and has two or more atoms
molecules that form living organisms - contain thousands of elements connected by chemical bonds
store and transport energy; provide structural support
Lipids (or fats)
store energy; formed by carbon and hydrogen; do not dissolve in water
essential component of living cell; include enzymes, hormones and antibodies; essential for growth and repair of tissue
Nucleic Acids
store genetic materials that leads to replication or organism; store hereditary info
series of cells that complete a shared function; can form organs
fully differentiated structural/functional unit that serves special function
Organ System
organs that work together to accomplish complex series of tasks (e.g., circulatory, digestive systems...)
Prokaryote cells
unicellular; contain cytoplasm and membrane; lack organelles; have no nucleus; example: bacteria
Eukaryote cells
contain organelles, membrane, and chromosomal proteins; examples: paramecia, skin tissue, organs
differentiated structure within cell that performs specific function, e.g., nucleus, chromosomes, ribosomes, membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, etc., etc.
Brain of cell; contains DNA
Nuclear Membrane
membrane that surrounds nucleus
site of genetic information; contains DNA
house the machinery for cell function; inside nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
highway of networks of cell tissue
Cell membrane
walls the entire animal cell; regulates entry/exit of substances
Cell Wall
walls the entire plant cell; stronger than cell membrane; regulates entry/exit of substances
"internal framework" of cell; organizes structures in the cell
"gelatin" inside cell; protects organelles
Golgi Apparati
"ships" goods from ER to rest of cell
site of photosynthesis in plant cells; trap sunlight
chemical powerhouse of cell; site of cellular respiration
"waste disposal" sacs of the cell
"containers" in animal cells for water and organic substances
Central Vacuole
large "holding container" in plant cells for water; helps maintain turgor pressure
form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during cell division
Plant Cell (PC) vs. Animal Cell (AC)
PC: cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole. AC: cell membrane, several vacuoles; centriole
Types of Tissues:
Epithelial Tissue: covers body surfaces (including skin and organs).

Connective Tissue: supports other tissues; essential functions of mechanical reinforcement, immune surveillance, transport/diffusion of nutrients and wastes, and energy storage (fat).

Nervous Tissue: responsible for rapid long-distance signalling, coordination, and "thinking".

Muscle Tissue: gross movement by means of cellular contraction.
line areas of body and surround organs keeping them separate from other organs; e.g., outer layer of skin, tissue that surrounds organs
add support and structure to the body; e.g., inner layers of skin, tendons, bone, fat, blood
can contract; composed of two proteins that allow movement
two types of cells - neuron and glial; create and conduct electrical signals managed by brain and transmitted via spinal cord
specialized fluid that delivers nutrient to cells and transports waste from cells; composed of four types of cells
red blood cells
most numerous; manufactured in marrow; deliver oxygen from lungs to body tissues via circulatory system
white blood cells
immune system; manufactured in marrow; fight diseases; # is indicator of infection
produced in marrow; release growth factors and aid in clotting
contain salts and various proteins
foreign substances located on surface of red blood cells
proteins produced in response to specific antigens; produced by lymphatic organ system; located in blood plasma; help immune system
Blood types
A - carries A antigen; B - carries B antigen; AB - carries A & B antigens; O - carries no antigens (universal donor)
produced in marrow; release growth factors and aid in clotting
contain salts and various proteins
foreign substances located on surface of red blood cells
proteins produced in response to specific antigens; produced by lymphatic organ system; located in blood plasma; help immune system
Blood types
A - carries A antigen; B - carries B antigen; AB - carries A & B antigens; O - carries no antigens (universal donor)
Rh antigen
presence (or lack of) is a characteristic of blood type;
+ or -
With or without the Rd antigen
Organ System
Two or more organs working together
Skeletal System
bones/cartilage/tendons/ligaments; provides support, protects organs, provides sites to which organs attach
Integumentary System
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands; provides protection for tissues, excretes waste, regulates temp; largest system
Muscular System
muscles; provides movement, controls movement of matter through organs
Circulatory System
heart, blood vessels, blood (?); transports nutrients, gases, hormones and waste
Nervous System
brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves; relays electrical signals through body, directs behavior and movement
Respiratory System
nose, trachea, lungs; provides gas exchange between blood and environment
Digestive System
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines; breaks down and absorbs nutrients for growth and maintenance
Excretory System
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra; filters out waste, toxins and excess water or nutrients
Endocrine System
pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, etc.; relays chemical info along with nervous system to control physiological processes
Reproductive System
manufacture cells that allow reproduction, i.e., sperm and eggs
Lymphatic/Immune System
lymph, lymph nodes and vessels, etc.; destroys microbes and viruses and removes fat and excess fluids from blood
Unique to all living things
metabolism, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, ecology and evolution
living things exchange chemical matter with external environs & transform organic matter within cells resulting in release/use of energy
living things respond to stimuli such as light, heat, sound, etc.
living things take in and organize material from environment into its own structures
living thing can produce a copy of itself via reproduction; asexual (bacteria) and sexual (two parents to create offspring)
the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors). This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
(Gregor Mendel and the pea plants)
set of characteristics an organism receives from its parents
a characteristic that distinguishes one individual organism from another
Hybrids (heredity)
organisms with certain traits crossed with organisms with other traits
different forms of a gene
expressed allele in hybrid
unexpressed allele in hybrid
Traits an organism displays
genetic composition of alleles
Mendel's Principles
Individual genes determine biological characteristics; for each gene, an organism receives on allele from one parent and one from the other; one allele may be dominant over another
Ecology (what makes living things unique)
living thing is influenced by environment AND can alter its surroundings
Evolution (what makes living things unique)
living thing can adapt to changes in environment; majority of time: organism develops abilities to deal more effectively with environment
credited with conceptualization of diversity of life, adaptation, natural selection, and survival of the fittest
Adaptation (Darwin)
organisms possess traits that enable them to survive
Fitness (Darwin)
ability of an organism to pass on traits to offspring successfully
Natural Selection (Darwin)
only the fittest organisms survive and continue to exist in nature
Kingdoms of Living Things
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Adaptation (Darwin)
organisms possess traits that enable them to survive
Fitness (Darwin)
ability of an organism to pass on traits to offspring successfully
Natural Selection (Darwin)
only the fittest organisms survive and continue to exist in nature
Kingdoms of Living Things
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Carolus Linnaeus
developed taxonomic classification to organize living things in mid 1700s;
binomial nomenclature
two-name system to identify an organism by listing genus and species
not in any kingdom; not considered living; can't reproduce without a living host
All plants need...
water, nutrients (especially nitrogen) from soil, carbon dioxide, and sunlight
Plants manufacture _____ and _____ through photosynthesis.
oxygen; sugar
Three Groups of Plants (according to life cycle)
Annual (completes entire life cycle in one full year), Biennial (takes about two years to complete cycle), Perennial (lives more than 3 years)
process of converting light energy to chemical energy; occurs in plants and algae; takes place in leaves (chloroplasts)
Light Reaction (photosynthesis)
light energy converted to chemical energy
Dark Reaction (photosynthesis)
converts CO2 and water into sugar, stored as starch
enables animals to use oxygen to release carbon dioxide into the environment, which is then used by plants for photosynthesis
two organisms interact to benefit of both
one organism benefits, other is unharmed (barnacles)
one benefits at expense of other (tapeworm)
one is destroyed, other is unaffected (animals trample grass, grass dies)
geographical area that contains distinctive plant and animal groups adapted to that environment (determined by geography and climate)
living community that is composed of complex relationships between each member and environment
areas or environments where an organism lives
Food chain/Food web
Living part of an ecosystem; plants at beginning of chain (producers); Consumers eat plants and other organisms
eat only animals (sharks, numerous mammals)
eat plants (rodents, deer, cattle)
eat both plants and animals (humans)
feed off dead plants and animals (fungi and bacteria)
Simple life cycle
Before/At birth...Infancy (youth)...Adult
Complex life cycle
Includes metamorphosis
biological process during which an animal progresses through several distinctive changes in body structure (butterfly)
Life Cycle of Butterfly
Eggs, Caterpillar, Pupa or Chrysalis, Adult emerging from Chrysalis, Butterfly
Life Cycle of Amphibian
Egg, Tadpole with external gills, Legs appear then forelimbs, Frog
periodic shedding of all or part of outer covering (i.e., skin, shell, feathers, exoskeleton, etc.)
Physical material that occupies space and has mass
measure of the amount of material in an object (think: astronaut in space still has mass)
Force that mass exerts as a result of gravity (think: astronaut in space is weightless)
Newton's Law of Gravity
there is an attractive force between all masses
three-dimensional space occupied by matter; expressed as meter-cubed (m to the 3rd power)
amount of mass in a unit volume of a substance; density = mass over volume (think: lead has higher density than a feather)
Definite volume and shape; cannot be compressed
Distinct volume, takes shape of container; cannot be compressed
No distinct volume and shape; volume conforms to container; can be compressed and expanded
like a gas, but can conduct electricity (lightning); volume and shape conform to container
Pure substances
Cannot be broken down by chemical or physical means (anything on periodic table, water, table salt, etc.)
Physical Properties
Can be measured without changing the substance: taste, odor, density, color, melting and boiling points, hardness
Chemical Properties
How substance will interact with other substances: flammability, radioactivity, sensitivity to light, oxidation, toxicity
Physical Change
Substance changes physical appearance but not identity (ice to water, water to vapor)
Chemical Change
Substance changes to another substance (logs burnt in a fireplace, egg cooked, car rusts; photosynthesis, respiration, digestion)
combination of two or more substances in which eat retains identity (oil & water, sand & water, concrete)
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances; Mendeleev first created Periodic Table of Elements
Composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
Atomic Theory (Dalton)
1) each element composed of atoms; 2) all atoms of one element are identical; 3) atoms of different elements have diff properties; 4) atoms are neither created nor destroyed; 5) atoms can combine to form compounds; 6) in any compound, number and kind of atoms are constant
Law of Conservation of Matter or Mass
matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Constant Composition
the composition of a substance is alway the same (molecule of water will always have two atoms hydrogen, one atom oxygen)
Law of Multiple Proportions
the masses of one element combined with another element are always whole numbers
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed (amount of energy required to light up a bulb is equal to amount of energy emitted by the light bulb)
Protons (positive charge) and Neutrons (no charge) in the nucleus; Electrons (negative charge)
Combination of two or more tightly bound atoms; acts as a singular object
Capacity of a physical system to perform work; can be transferred as heat (forms: heat, sound, chemical, nuclear, light, mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic)
Potential Energy
energy that is stored in matter (object in rubber band pulled back in slingshot -- energy is potential; kinetic after object leaves band)
Kinetic Energy
energy contained in a moving mass
Conduction (transfer of heat energy)
atoms and molecules collide to transfer kinetic energy (atomic and molecular level)
Convection (transfer of heat energy)
heat moves from hot region to cold, but involves large amt of matter, thus macroscopic (heating water)
Radiation (transfer of heat energy)
light energy in form of heat transferred from sun to earth; moves in electromagnetic waves
Waves (electromagnetic)
specific properties; each color on spectrum has specific wavelength and emits specific amt of energy
any spatial and/or temporal change in a physical system; described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time
quantity that has size and direction; symbolized by arrow
rate of change of an object
change in velocity over time
distance from the point at which the object is at rest to the end point of motion
denotes sequence of, duration of, and intervals between events
Sir Isaac Newton
laws of motion
First Law of Motion
object at rest remains stationary and object in motion moves at same speed unless acted on by unbalanced force
tendency of an object to resist change in motion
Second Law of Motion
when a force is placed on an object, it will accelerate in the direction of the force; acceleration is proportion to force applied
Third Law of Motion
every action has an equal and opposite reaction (recoil of gun)
bar that rotates around a fixed point called a fulcrum (three classes depend on location of fulcrum and input/output forces) (1st: seesaw, 2nd: nail clippers, 3rd: baseball bat)
Wheel and Axle
large wheel secured to smaller wheel or axle; when one part turns, other part turns
Grooved wheel turns freely in a frame called a block; can change direction of a force and gain mechanical advantage
Inclined Plane
Even surface that slopes (ramp, ladder, stairs); remains stationary
Modification of inclined plane; used to separate or hold something; can move (scissor blades)
Modified version of inclined plane
Compound/Complex Machines
combinations of simple machines (wheelbarrow: wheel and axle and lever; can opener: wheel, lever, wedge)
Time for Earth to Orbit Sun
approx. 365 days
Time for Earth to rotate on its axis
approx 24 hours
Distance between Earth and Sun
93 million miles
Coldest temp on Earth
-128.5 degrees F (Antarctica - 1983)
Highest temp on Earth
136.4 degrees F (Libya - 1922)
Major components of breathable air
Nitrogen (78.08%); Oxygen (20.94%)
Moon orbits Earth in...
approx. 28 days (month)
Earth is...
wider at the equator than from the North to South Pole
Solar eclipse
moon travels between Sun and Earth during middle of day and blocks Sun's light from Earth
Lunar Eclipse
Moon moves into Earth's shadow during the night and blocks the moon from the Earth (from the sun's rays, no?)
Physical Earth
inner core, outer core, mantle, upper mantle, crust
Inner core
solid -- contains nickel
Outer core
liquid - contains lead (two times as thick as inner core)
below crust; flexible; upper composed or rock; lower is hot and plastic-like (?)
outermost surface; two types -- continental and oceanic
layer that includes crust and part of upper mantle; site of volcanoes, earthquakes, continental drifts, etc.
Tectonic Plates
100 k thick; continental and oceanic crust; convection (heat energy) causes plates to move constantly in diff directions; 8 major ones and many minor
where tectonic plates meet; most active volcanoes located there
difference in elevation between two points
Igneous Rocks
formed by molten rock
Sedimentary Rock
formed by rocks and minerals resulting from chemical and physical breakdown of pre-existing rocks; e.g., quartz, shale, limestone
Metamorphic Rock
changed into another kind of rock (usually by heat or pressure); e.g., marble
Properties of Rock
hardness, luster, density, cleavage, fracture, twinning, transparency, color, special light effects, streak
Water Cycle
Accumulation, Evaporation/Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, and Run-Off
water is absorbed through roots of plants, moves to leaves, and evaporates into atmopshere
Weather -- factors that impact
latitude, altitude, prevailing winds, distance from sea, ocean currents, Earth's tilt, mountains, people
Splash Erosion (exogenous process modifying Earth)
rain splashes down and knocks soil particles into air
Sheet Erosion (exogenous process modifying Earth)
particles unearthed via splashing move downhill to cause sheet-flooding
Ice as Erosive Force
Powerful erosive force; water under glacier freezes and breaks off pieces of rock
Waves as Erosive Forces
seriously erode rocks along the coastline
Ocean Waves
characterized by height, length, period, and speed; carry energy across vast distances
created by pull of gravitational force; fluctuate daily as moon, Earth and Sun interact; pull of Earth's side closest to moon pulls ocean water and creates bulge
use of evidence that is based on the senses and can be replicated, critiqued, and experienced by other scientists
use of logical reasoning; not instinctive or intuitive
persistent interrogation of beliefs and conclusions
Scientific Inquiry
asking questions, gathering evidence, considering alternative explanations, weighing evidence, drawing and articulating conclusions
Themes of Scientific Discovery
tension between science/govt/religion have existed since beginning of time; war/warfare promote advances in tech/engineering; scientific thinking enhances communication and further discovery; discoveries about nature/evolution/body have led to engineering breakthroughs that pervade all aspects of life; interdisciplinary nature of scientific discovery
Questioning (scientific inquiry)
Process of posing factual, analytical, evaluative questions that seek to inquire about events in the natural world
Observation (scientific inquiry)
process of using all senses and tech to gather info
Hypothesizing (scientific inquiry)
process of posing educated guess or possible theory or statement
Variable (scientific inquiry)
Dependent: NOT under our control; Independent: IS under our control, we manipulate in order to see what happens
Descriptive Clarity
What is known about how this study was conducted?
Data Quality
Are data sources legitimate, credible and rational?
Analytic Integrity
Are findings credible, replicable, and trustworthy?