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84 Cards in this Set

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How much movement do synarthroses allow?

Little or no movement

Which joint are ampiarthroses and allow some movement?

Cartilaginous

Which joints are synovial and allow free movement?

Diarthroses

What type of joints are gomphoses?

Fibrous

What type of joint are syndesmosis?

Fibrous

What replaces fontenelles?

Sutures

What is a syntosis?

Fusion of bones

What is an interosseous ligament?

Between bone, fibrous joint

What holds gomphoses in place?

Collagenous connective tissue

What are growth plates and costal cartilage?

Primary synchondroses

What are symphyses?

Secondary cartiliganenous joints

What type of joint are the intervertebral discs?

Secondary cartilaginous

Where do you find secondary cartilaginous joints?

Between articular cartilage of bones

Which type of movement is the only type of movement a plane synovial joint will permit?

Gliding

Which type of joint is the acromoiclavicular?

Plane synovial

Which type of joint is between the atlas and axis?

Pivot synovial

What type of joint is the wrist joint?

Epsiloid

What type of joint is the metacarpophalangeal?

Epsiloid (2 planes)

What type of joint is between the thumb and the wrist?

Saddle joint

What type of joint is the sternoclavicular?

Saddle

What does the outer fibrous capsule synovial joint blend with?

Perosteum and tendons

What are ligaments made of?

Parallel collagen fibres connected to the outer fibrous joint capsule

Where are the type A synovial cells derived from?

Bone marrow

What cell synthesises hyaluronic acid?

Type b synovial cells

What are the fibres in articular cartilage?

Collagen (mostly type 2)

What is the matrix composed of in articular cartilage?

Proteoglycans

What are the menisci composed of?

fibrocartilage

Where are the bursae often found?

Where tendon passes over bone

What are the tendon sheaths made of?

Modified bursae

What fills bursae?

Synovial fluid

What type of lubrication in synovial fluid involves charges glycoproteins?

Boundary

What type of lubrication synovial joints occurs because of pressurised fluid?

Fluid film

which muscular dystrophy is caused by a larger deletion in the genome?

Beckers

in which MD is there a smaller deletion in the genome but the reading frame is deleted leading to a more severe MD?

Duchennes

what can you stain for to diagnose MDs?

acid phosphatase in lysosomes (involved in inflammation and regeneration?

why type of myopathy is associated with 'ragged red fibres'

mitochondrial myopathies

what are ragged red fibres composed of?

glycogen and neutral lipids

what are extrinsic muscle disorders?

neurogenic disorders causing redistribution of fibre type

what are channelopathies?

disorders of muscle membranes

what is an example of a channelopathy?

myotonic dystrophy

what is the inheritance pattern of myotonic dystrophy?

autosomal dominant

what is inclusion body myostitis?

inflammatory, wasting of muscles

what is the function of dystrophin?

prevents excessive stress on the cell membrane during muscle contraction

what happens to the stiffness in muscle dystrophy fibres?

reduces

what is mcardles disease?

myophosphorylase deficiency (can't break down glycogen)

what stain's for glycogen?

PAS

what is elevated in mitochondrial myopathies after exercise test?

lactate

what is a failure to produce lactate indicative in an ischeamic excercise test?

disorder of glycogen metabolism (myophosphorylase deficiency)

what are elevated CK levels indicative of?

damage to muscle membrane (DMD)

does SM contain sarcomeres?

no

what indicates the power stroke in muscle contraction?

the release of Pi

what causes myosin to release actin?

ATP binding to the myosin head

what returns myosin to it's original conformation?

hydrolysis of ATP

where are satellite cells found?

periphery of muscle fibre

what is p62 a marker of?

autophagy and ubiquitin pathway activation

what does desmin connect?

sarcolemma, Z disk and nuclear membrane

what kind of neurons are nociceptive primary afferent neurons?

pseudo unipolar

what are the main nociceptive fibres?

c (4)

how much myelination do c nociceptive fibres have?

none

what kind of pain do A 8 (3) nociceptive fibres feel?

sharp pain

what kind of pain do A b nociceptive fibres feel?

lower levels of discomfort

which is the thickest, fastest type of nociceptive fibre?

A beta (2)

what is situated in the grey matter?

neuronal cell bodies

what do nociceptive receptors synapse onto?

second order neurons in rexed laminae 1-6

how does the sensory information from nociceptive neurons reach the brain?

through the anterolateral spinothalamic tracts to thalamus

what is the reticular formation responsible for?

keeping us awake

what is the cingulate cortex?

emotional motor cortex - tells motor system how to move differently when in pain

what is the pain cortex?

insula

what does increased activity in the nociceptor pathways cause?

sensitisation

what is allodydnia?

pain and unpleasant sensation evoked by low intensity stimuli e.g in gout

what can allodydnia be caused by?

abnormal activity in non nocieceptive neurons or lower thresholds in nociceptive receptors

what is hyperalgesia?

increased pain sensation from a noxious stimulus

what type of chronic pain occurs because of inflammation or nerve injury?

hyperalgesia

what type of chronic pain occurs because of increased excitibility in nociceptive pathways?

hyperalgesia

which nociceptive neurons are active in burning pain?

c fibres

which nociceptive neurons are activated in stabbing pain?

A

what is pain due to damage to the nerve called?

neuropathic pain

where are CGRP fibres found?

Joint structures but not cartilage, a vasodilator

what inreases the chances of bony oesteophytes forming in OA?

inflammation of the joint because it increases the oxygen availability

where do bony oesteophytes grow?

in tendon inserts

how does bone cancer cause pain ?

increased activity of oesteoclasts reabsorbing bone, releasing acid onto nociceptive nerve endings

what can dermatomes tell you about pain in the vertebral column or nerves?

pain in a dermatome can indicate which nerve or vertebrae are effected

what does osteoproegerin block?

oesteoclast activity

what is the component of the inorganic matrix of bone?

hydroxyapatite