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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the five areas and their function associated with essential motivated behavior?
1. Hypothalamus - autonomic output, ect
2. Amygdala - emotional valence
3. VTA - NA - Reward value
4. Hippocampus - Learned associations
5. Prefrontal cortex - concious control
What is a drive state?
A drive state is something that happens with your body automatically in response to some sort of change. Like getting cold, your body's behavior changes to warm up.
What are higher levels of motivated behaviors called?
Goal states
What state is a simple feedback loop designed to correct an error?
Drive state
What state involves a more subjective form of rewarding?
Goal state
Can the behavior associated with goal states be modified outside of conscious control? What can contribute to this change?
Yes, they can be changed by experience.
What sort of behaviors seemed to be regulated? Name some examples.
1. Behaviors that are essential for the survival of the individual or species
2. Hunger, temperature, thirst, withdraw/drug craving, reward pathways
What activates a drive state?
Loss of homeostasis
Explain the pathway activated when you lose homeostasis. Can you consciously override the behaviors?
1. The set point is signaled by the hypothalamus
2. Input from the body is compared to the set point
3. If there is a difference a error signal initiates drive states that initiates behavior to correct the error
4. Can sometimes be conscious or unconscious to behaviors
5. You can sometimes consciously override the behaviors
Where does most feedback detection take place? What type of cells participate?
1. The hypothalamus
2. Hypothalamic sensory cells
What general area of the hypothalmus do you find cells sensitive to osmolarity?
Lateral areas
What area in the hypothalamus plays a large roll in sexual behavior?
Preoptic area
A lesion to this structure in the brain leads to excessive copulation.
What are four different areas that the hypothalamus receives input from?
1. Sensory from the viscera
2. Hippocampus and amygdala - emotional information
3. Ventral striatum/NA
4. Frontal lobe - orbital cortex more specifically
What is the hypothalamus' main output?
Through the pituitary gland
Is hypothalamic output considered a reciprocal output?
Yes it is
What does the hypothalamus control?
Drive related behaviors
What are the ways the hypothalamus controls homeostasis?
1. Endocrine
2. Autonomic
3. Emotional
4. Somatic
5. Visceral
6. Skeletal
Is conscious override of the hypothalamic initiated behviors possible?
Yes, like not eating when you are hungry
Where does task-based learning seem to take place?
The striatum - moreso the caudate
What explanation of motivated behavior is insufficient?
The aleviation of drive states
What is there to guaranteethe survival of the species?
Incentive mechanisms
Where does the VTA project to?
Nucleus accumbens which has some involvement in greater incentives
What provides clues to what directs goal directed behaviors?
Addiction studies
What type of properties does tobacco have?
Anxiolytic properties
Why have heroin and cocaine been heavily studied?
Due to their effect of the motivation/reward system.
Why are addicted behaviors practiced?
They produce a specific effect.
What type of behavior is addiction an example of?
Learned behavior
What is associated with drug addiction?
Having a strong emotional valence.
Why do certain drugs become addictive?
Because they produce the same effect of a lot of NTs yet have a much longer half life.
How long is nicotine's halflife?
30 minutes to an hour
How does the body react to the constant presence of a drug?
By down regulating receptors and becoming tolerant to the drug.
What is it called when the body adapts a produces a drive state for when the drug is not present in your system?
What level does dependence usually occur at?
The level of the receptor
What could dependence be partly responsible for?
In terms of addiction, do physical and psychological symptoms share the same pathways?
Yes they do share some of the same pathways
What is compulsive use / abuse of a drug despite adverse consequences?
Is there a distinction between being dependent on a drug and being addicted to a drug?
Give an example of how homeostasis might change in reaction to morphine use.
1. Morphine is used and causes the hyperpolarization of cells
2. Eventually molecular changes take place where the original dose of morphine no longer causes hyperpolarization (need more for the effect)
3. When morphine stops being used the body can no longer cause the hyperpolarization of the cell due to the molecular changes that happened when it was being supplied morphine
In the rat experiments, what part of the brain was being stimulated when the rat hit the lever?
The medial forebrain bundle
What is the medial forebrain bundle responsible for?
Carrying the dopaminergic signal from the VTA to the NA
In the rat experiment, the rate at which the rats pushed the lever was directly correlated to what?
The degree of reward that they experienced
What are the two dopaminergic systems associated with reward?
1. SNpc projects to the caudate and putamen - involved in reward because of associated behaviors
2. Mesocorticolimbic system - VTA to NA - natural reward and addiction
What is the name of the system associated with the projection of the VTA to the NA?
Mesocorticolimbic system
What diseases are probably coupled to schizophrenia and manic depression?
Dompaminergic pathways
What did the monkey experiments show about rewarding behavior?
Whenever they did a task right and were rewarded, the VTA behavior went nuts.
What happened if the monkey did the task right and thought it was going to get a reward but didn't?
The monkey's VTA activity went way down after it did not receive its reward.
What happens in withdrawl from chronic morphine use?
Withdrawal from chronic morphine produces a profound decrease in DA release in N Accumbens
In the dopamine PET imaging study, what happened in the the cocaine addicts that were given ritalin?
Instead of dopamine being released, nothing really happened and not very much marker was released. The patient did not have the proper resposne.
Besides drugs, what can alter DA releasal?
What can drugs of abuse be regarded as?
Drugs of abuse can be regarded as surrogates of natural rewards