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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the integumentary system?

Layered cutaneous membranes and associated appendages

Define epidermis

superficial layer composed of stratified squamous epithelium

Define dermis

deep layer composed of connective tissue and containing blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves

How thick does the epidermis and dermis measure?


Six functions of the skin

- Excretes waste

- Protection

- Sensory reception

- Thermoregulation

- Blood reservoir 5%

- Metabolic functions (Vit D)

What are the 4 types of epithelial cells in the epidermis?

- Keratinocytes

- Melanocytes

- Langerhans cells

- Merkel cells/ discs

What is the function of normal flora of the skin?

'crowd out' potentially harmful bacteria, preventing pathogens gaining access to the body

What do keratinocytes produce?


Define melanocyte?

a mature melanin-forming cell, especially in the skin

Where are langerhans cells most prominent?

Stratum spinosum

Define langerhans cells

-antigen-presenting immune cells

- contain large granules called Birbeck granules

What is the function of Merkel cells?

- closely associated with the unmyelinated tip of a nerve fiber

- probably functions in tactile sensory perception

Where are Merkel cells most prominent?

Stratum basale

Rows of clear, dead keratinocytes and helps to reduce friction between the epidermal cell layers

Stratum lucidum

Main 4 layers of the epidermis

- Stratum corneum

- Stratum granulosum

- Stratum spinosum

- Stratum basale

Which epidermis layer is filled with keratin?

Stratum corneum

5 layers of flattened cells and lamellar granules

Stratum granulosum

The deepest epidermal layer

Stratum basale

Thick connective tissue layer that lies just below the stratum basale of the epidermis


Two layers of the dermis

Papillary and reticular

80% of the dermis including adipose tissue and dense irregular CT

Reticular layer

What are nails made of?

Hardened keratinized cells

Why are fingerprints unique?

Dermal papillae pushes up against stratum basale and creates uneven ridges

4 appendages of the skin

Nails, hair & follicles, eccrine glands, apocrine glands

Muscle that moves hair follicle

Arrector pili

Functions of sebum (3)

- Lubricates hair and skin

- Slows water loss

- Kills bacteria

The only type of holocrine gland

Suboriferous glands: produce and secrete sebum

Difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands

Eccrine- opens through pore

Apocrine- opens through hair follicles

In which strata of the epidermis reside melanocytes?

Stratum basale