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54 Cards in this Set

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Axial skeleton

Bones of the skull, vertebral column, rib cage



These bones protect support or carry other body parts

Appendicular

Upper and lower limbs , girdles( shoulder bones and hip bones) that attatch the limbs .



Bones of the limbs help us move from place to place ( locomotion)

Femur

Withstands pressure and its hollow cylinders design provides strength to hold our upright posture

Long bones

Long Femur, humerus Movement - to generate strength and speed

Short bones

Carpals, tarsals:cube shaped bones of the wrists and ankles

Flat bones

Flat (Plate) Ribs, cranium Protection of vital organs, attachment of muscles to help movement

Irregular bonrs

Irregular Vertebrae, face Provide shape, protection

Functions of bone 1

Provides a framework that supports the body Eg lower limbs act as pillars to support the body trunk when we stand

Bone function 2

Skeletal muscles which attach to bones by tendons use bones as levers to move the body and as a result we are able to walk and grasp objects

Short bones

Carpals, tarsal Shock absorption - spreading load

Hyaline cartilage

covers the ends of the bones, stops them rubbing together and absorbs shock.

Epiphysis

head’ of the bone.

Diaphysis

The shaft

Compact bone

hard, dense bone. It gives strength to the hollow part of the bone.

Periosteum

– a protective layer where there is no hyaline cartilage. Ligaments and tendons attach to the periosteum.

Medullary cavity

contains the yellow bone marrow; where white blood cells are made.

Joint definition

Where two or more bones meet etc the hip

Ligament


Ligament joins bone to bone, stabilising the joint.

Tendons


Tendon joins muscle to bone enabling movement.

Synovial membrane


Synovial membrane produces synovial fluid.

High calcium levels

The thyroid gland releases the hormone calcitonin, which lowers blood calcium levels. Calcitonin does this is by promoting bone deposition to take up calcium and store it in bones.

Fibrous joint

NO JOINT CAVITY



3 types ~ SUTURES


SYNDEMOSES


GOMPHOSES



Usually immovable

Fibrous joint

NO JOINT CAVITY



3 types ~ SUTURES


SYNDEMOSES


GOMPHOSES



Usually immovable

Sutures

Skull- allows skull to expand as the brain grows during youth



In adults they are immovable as movement of the cranial bones would damage the brain,



Immovable = protective adaptation

Syndesmoses

Connected by ligaments/ fibrous tissue



Movement depends on the length of fibers.

Fibrous joint

NO JOINT CAVITY


Bone ends/ united by collagen fibres


3 types ~ SUTURES= short


SYNDEMOSES= long


GOMPHOSES= periodontal ligament



Usually immovable

Sutures

Skull- allows skull to expand as the brain grows during youth



In adults they are immovable as movement of the cranial bones would damage the brain,



Immovable = protective adaptation

Syndesmoses

Connected by ligaments/ fibrous tissue



Movement depends on the length of fibers.

Gomphoses

Teeth


Immobile

Cartilaginous joints

2 types= synchondroses and symphyses

Cartilaginous joints

2 types= synchondroses and symphyses

Synchondroses

Unites bone


Example in children ~ epiphyseal plates temporary

Cartilaginous joints

2 types= synchondroses and symphyses

Synchondroses

Unites bone


Example in children ~ epiphyseal plates temporary

Symphyses

Joint where fibrocartilage unites the bone "symphysis" = growing together



Fibrocartilage is compressible and resilient = acts as shock absorber allows minimal movement at the joint



Symphyses are designed for strength with flexibility

Cartilaginous joints

2 types= synchondroses and symphyses

Synchondrosis(hyaline cartilage)

Unites bone


Example in children ~ epiphyseal plates temporary



Immobile

Symphysis

Joint where fibrocartilage unites the bone "symphysis" = growing together



Fibrocartilage is compressible and resilient = acts as shock absorber allows minimal movement at the joint



Symphyses are designed for strength with flexibility



Slightly moveable

Synovial joints

Movable, depends on design - limbs , most joints of the body

Factors that influence Stability of synovial joints

Articular surfaces providing stability have large surfaces and deep sockets and fit snugly together



Ligaments prevent undesirable movement/reinforce the joint



Muscle tone - tendons cross the joint is an important stabilising factor

Muscle tissue

Skeletal muscle is attached to the skeleton, striated


Controlled voluntarily



Cardiac- involuntarily, striated



Smooth muscle, hollow organs , involuntarily controlled

Muscle function

Muscles produce movement for example blood courses through our bodies due to the cardiac muscle of our heart and smooth muscle in the walls of our blood vessel which help maintain blood pressure



Skeletal muscles maintain body posture, by making adjustments to counteract the never ending pull of gravity

Muscle fatigue

Ionic imbalances contribute to muscle fatigue

amphiarthroses

Articulations that only allow a slight degree of movement are

The 12 vertebrae that articulate with the ribs are the

Thoracic

Agonist muscle interaction

Bicep brachii is the prime mover for forearm

Antagonist muscle interaction

Reverses movement eg


Triceps brachii

Synergist muscle

Provides unwanted movement/ helps prime mover produce movement

Fixative muscle

Immobilizes a bone to maintain posture

Insertion

Point where muscle(effort) pulls bone ( lever)

Insertion

Point where muscle(effort) pulls bone ( lever)

Origin

Point where muscle is attached to fixed bone



Immovable during muscle contraction

Blood calcium low

The parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted by the parathyroid glands, is responsible for regulating blood calcium levels; it is released whenever blood calcium levels are low.



Pth stimulates osteoclasts, which break down bone to release calcium into the blood stream.



PTH increases blood calcium levels by increasing the amount of calcium resorbed by the kidneys before it can be excreted in urine


High calcium levels

Hormone called calcitonin is released by thyroid gland, stimulating osteoblasts and stimulating calcium excretion from kidneys. This results in calcium being deposited to bones to be absorbed.