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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the classic triad of symptoms seen in acute Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

Ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, and confusional state

A right-handed patient sustains a PCA infarct that results in damage to the left posterior white matter and the splenium of the corpus callosum, with relative gray matter sparing. Which of the following symptom clusters is most likely to occur?

Alexia without agraphia (a.k.a. posterior alexia or associative alexia)

Which is most true of a person with Transient Global Amnesia?

oriented and able to correctly provide personal information

Which of the following is a differentiating factor in comparing “familial” Alzheimer’s (in which a genetic link has been established) from the more common “nonfamilial” Alzheimer’s?

Age of onset

A patient who is unable to recognize his family members, or his doctor of many years, is likely suffering from ________. If this problem is the result of a unilateral disorder, it is likely that the lesion is in the ______ hemisphere.

Prosopagnosia, Right

Anomic aphasia is typically caused by damage to the following area of the left hemisphere

Angular Gyrus

What % of all causes of dementia are reversible


An individual with which type of dementia is most likely to show retrieval rather than retention deficits

Parkinson’s Disease

Leukoaraiosis refers to

Diffuse white matter changes seen in older patients

The criterion validity of a test is limited by...

The test’s standard deviation

Functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) in patients with schizophrenia has shown...


Few studies have been conducted on pesticide exposures, however, the deficits associated with them appear to be similar to the core pattern in solvent toxicity, including

Mental slowing and anxiety/depression

In pediatric patients, about ____ % of brain tumors are in the posterior fossa and ___% are supratentorial

70, 30

Which region of the brain seems to be involved both in habit learning and in OCD?


Dysarthria, dysphagia and hypoactive jaw and gag reflexes without associated cognitive or emotional changes is known as

Bulbar palsy

Which brain region is most often affected by hydrocephalus?

Posterior regions

What pattern of IQ performance is typically observed in children with early-onset hydrocephalus? (VIQ vs PIQ)


Which of the following disorders has been most closely linked to degeneration of acetylcholine-synthesizing neurons in the basal forebrain?

Alzheimer’s Disease

Which treatments of tumors are generally not associated with mental status changes?

All chemotherapies except methotrexate

Lateral cerebellar lesions primarily affect

Motor planning

LH vs RH : WM vs GM

The left hemisphere has more gray matter/less white matter relative to the right hemisphere

A person who can not identify an object by touch may have


Autopsy studies of dementia pugilistica typically reveal all of the following except:

a) Neuronal loss

b) Infarcts in the basal ganglia

c) Astrocyte proliferation

d) Prominent neurofibrillary tangles


Which symptoms below are characteristic of normal aging:

a) Decreased verbal fluency

b) Decreased selective and sustained attention

c) Decreased working memory skills

d) Decreased “crystallized” knowledge

e) Difficulties with language comprehension

f) A & C

g) B & C


The structure involved in the “master clock” for circadian rhythms is the

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

A test designed as a general screening for brain impairment should have

High sensitivity

Infarction of the inferior portion of the pons or medulla can cause

Locked in syndrome

Pseudobulbar palsy

Inability to control facial muscles, including the tongue:




“Man in barrel” syndrome

Bilateral arm weakness

Intact cranial nerves

Preservation of leg function

Ischemia in the border zone between ACA and MCA may be the most likely etiology

“Pie in sky” visual defect

Superior homonymous quadrantanopia

Contralateral temporal lobe

A person with phonological alexia is most likely to make the following error

Reads “though” for “thought”

Which symptoms are commonly associated with Central Alexia (aka alexia with agraphia)?

Finger agnosia

Right hemisensory loss (e.g., right homonymous field defect)

Right-left confusion


Which area of the brain has been shown to be most involved in response initiation and inhibition?


In lesions of the dominant inferior parietal lobe, centering on the angular gyrus, you would expect that the patient would have deficits in:

Naming individual letters in isolation

Hemisensory loss and/or right homonymous visual field deficit

Reading nonwords

Writing (not just copy) words

The pattern of “dementia with psychomotor slowing” occurs in all except which of the following disorders?

a) HIV-related dementia

b) Progressive supranuclear palsy

c) Huntington’s disease

d) Alzheimer’s dementia


The pattern of new learning in the course of normal aging is characterized by

Somewhat poorer initial learning but intact delayed recall of what they learned

The type of memory deficit most apparent in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff amnesia is a deficit in

Initial encoding of new material

A right MCA stroke in the distribution of the inferior division would most likely cause

Left hemineglect, decreased voluntary movements, and relatively normal left-sided strength

What is the most likely cause for transient global amnesia?

Basilar artery TIA

Alexia without agraphia is most likely due to damage to what region(s)?

Infarction of left posterior artery territory including the splenium of the corpus callosum

Damaged left visual + no connection from intact right visual to left language areas + intact connections between left language areas and motor areas

Research has shown that right-sided brain damage can lead to subtle language deficits in



Use of abstract constructs

Research has shown that individuals with mild cognitive impairment will develop dementia at a rate of?

10-15% per year, at a greater prevalence than the general population

Which area of memory is found to be most intact in normal aging?

a) Working memory

b) Learning and Recall

c) Recognition

d) Remote memory


Which of the following is true about Lewy Body Dementia?

It presents with Parkinsonian motor symptoms but the cognitive functioning more similarly looks like Alzheimer’s dementia.

In order to determine whether a change in a patient’s scores from Time 1 to Time 2 represents a clinically significant change, a neuropsychologist must take into account:

Measurement error, practice effects, regression to the mean


GCS - 13-15

PTA - 0-24 hours

LoC - 0-30 minutes

Moderate TBI: GCS, PTA, LoC

GCS - 9-12

PTA - 1-7 days

LoC - .5 - 24 hours

Severe TBI: GCS, PTA, LoC

GCS - 3-8

PTA - > 7 days

LoC - > 1 day

Huntington’s Disease dementia

Severity of dementia is correlated with caudate atrophy

Generally begins within one year of chorea

Consistent with a subcortical dementia

Anterograde amnesia is associated with ________ damage


Retrograde amnesia is associated with ______ or ________ lesions

Mammillary body or thalamic nuclei

Which of the following is not characteristic of Down’s Syndrome?

a) Most prevalent type is trisomy 21

b) Sleep apnea is common

c) Females tend to have stronger cognitive profiles than males

d) Language skills are acquired at a faster rate relative to other motor or cognitive skills in Down’s Syndrome


You are a neuropsychologist who has been asked to assess Mr. Jones’ decision-making capacity. What are your ethical obligations in this situation?

You must provide Mr. Jones with an explanation of the assessment, consider his preferences and best interest, and obtain his assent.

A correlation coefficient of .80 means that the proportion of variance in Y that can be accounted for by knowing X is:


“Does the test sample the domain that it is intended to measure?” refers to which type of validity?

Content Validity

The hit rate of a test is best when ________

The base rate is moderate

The Geschwind-Galaburda Theory

Based on observation of asymmetry of planum temporale with the LH being larger than the right in most right handed people.

Less asymmetry in males – which is proposed to be an effect of testosterone in delaying the development of the LH, although greater development of the right.

This theory provides rationale for the greater spatial skills in males, as well as the increased rate of autoimmune disorders in males.

Abnormalities in what areas of the brain have been proposed to correlate with impairment in autism?

Cerebellum, brain stem, and temporal lobes

All of the following have been reported as being associated with reading disorders except:

a) Reduced volumes in dominant hemisphere perisylvian areas

b) Symmetrical planum temporale

c) Cortical malformations in the frontal and temporal areas

d) Reduced insular and frontal lobe volumes


In comparing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients to Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients, typically:

depression and hallucinations are more common in DLB patients while delusions are more common in AD patients

Anton's syndrome

Also known as visual anosognosia, is a rare symptom of brain damage occurring in the occipital lobe. Those who suffer from it are "cortically blind", but affirm, often quite adamantly and in the face of clear evidence of their blindness, that they are capable of seeing.

Positive and Negative Predictive Power

Proportions of positive and negative results in diagnostic tests that are true positive and true negative results.

A 50 y.o. normotensive man has an episode of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. This persists for 15 minutes ad then rapidly resolves. He has normal neurological and opthalmological examination. The mechanism of this episode is most likely:

Artery-to-artery embolism involving carotid and ophthalmic arteries

This TIA is known as “amaurosis fugax” due to carotid atherosclerotic disease. This causes transient blindness. Optic nerve demyelination may cause sudden visual loss but would not resolve so quickly. Compression of the optic nerve would cause gradual visual loss and reduced papillary light response.

Symptoms of carotid artery TIA?


Hemisensory loss


Transient aphasia

Trazodone is a __________ and may affect neuropsychological test results because it can make your patient ___________ .

Antidepressant, drowsy

Balint's Syndrome

Incompletely understood triad of severe neuropsychological impairments:

1. Simultanagnosia - inability to perceive the visual field as a whole

2. Oculomotor apraxia - difficulty in fixating the eyes

3. Optic ataxia - inability to move the hand to a specific object by using vision

In Alzheimer’s disease, which receptor is most severely depleted?

Muscarinic Ach

Which of the dopamine tracks is associated with the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia?


Treatments that use ABA designs to determine their efficacy are most vulnerable to the effects of __________ .


Hoover's sign

Leg paresis

Involuntary extension of the "normal" leg occurs when flexing the contralateral leg against resistance


impaired ability to perform rapid, alternating movements

Symptoms of vertigo, vomiting, transient global amnesia, and nystagmus are indicative of:

Basilar Artery TIA’s

Abnormalities with saccades are a hallmark feature of which disease?

Huntington's Disease

Wernicke’s encephalopathy is caused by thiamine deficiency usually associated with an alcoholic population. What is the classic triad of symptoms?

ataxia, confusional state, eye movement abnormalities

Which tremor is associated with parkinsonism?


t-test for

a) independent samples

b) correlated samples

c) single sample

a) compares the means of two independent groups

b) This test is used to analyze the relationship between two variables under the following conditions:1. The dependent variable is quantitative and measured on an interval level 2. The independent variable is within subjects in nature 3. The independent variable has only two levels

c) mean difference between the sample and the known value of the population mean

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Used to determine whether there are any significant differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups

Sex-dependent penetrance (complete in males; incomplete in females); lack of asymmetry in the planum temporale; smaller neurons in the left medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) compared to the right MGN; and possible involvement of chromosome 6 and 15 are findings associated with what developmental disorder:


Myasthenia Gravis

Neuromuscular disease that leads to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue.

In the most common cases, muscle weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block Ach receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction, inhibiting the excitatory effects of the Ach on nicotinic receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

Meniere's Disease

Disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.

Nuchal rigidity is most likely a sign of which of the following

a) Subarachnoid hemorrhage

b) Transtentorial herniation

c) Communicating hydrocephalus

d) Epidural hematoma