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133 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Copyright
the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea (i.e. - song, book, video game, intellectual design)
Intellectual Property
intangible creative works that is embodied in physical form and includes copyrights, trademarks, and patents.
Ethics
the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people. The rise of technology and e-business posses a new challenge to our existing ethics and how this is adapted in virtual business. Protection of a customers privacy is one of the most vital and murkiest areas for ebusiness.
Privacy
is the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your personal possessions, and not to be observed without your consent.
Confidentiality
the assurance that messages and information remain available only to those authorized to view them.
Information ethics
governs the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies, as well as the creation, collection, duplication, distribution, and processing of information.
Pirated software
the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software.
Counterfeit software
made to look like the real thing and sold as such.
Information management
examines the organizational resource of information and regulates the definitions, uses, value, and distribution ensuring it has the types of data/information required to function and grow effectively.
Information governance
is a method or system of government for information management or control.
Information Compliance
is the act of confrming, acquiescing, or yielding information.
Ediscovery
ability of a company to identify, search, gather, seize, or export digital information in responding to a litigation, audit, investigation, or information inquiry. As ediscovery grows so too does information governance and compliance. Ediscovery much easier to use in prosecution, than documents.
Epolicies
are policies and procedures that address information management along with the ethical use of computers and the internet in business environment. If a company's employees use computers at a minimum these epolicies should be implemented. These policies along with the creation of an ethical environment (where the ethical use of computers are utilized).
Ethical Computer use policy
contains general principals to guide computer use behavior (i.e. forbidding computer games to be played during working hours). This policy ensures that people know how to behave at work and there is a procedure in print that helps deal with consequences for infranctions (i.e. the dismissal of an employee that fails to yield to warning of computer misuse). The basic principle is that there should be informed consent of computer policy. If a company were to use only one epolicy, it should be an epolicy because the starting point and umbrella for all other epolicy.
Information privacy policy
created by a company that seeks to protect its information and consists of principles about information privacy. For example Visa created Inovant, which handles all it's information systems, including the customer information. This customer information consists of how people spend their money – what times, what stores, and at what moments. Inovant guards the information and bans it for use for anything other than its intended purpose.
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
requires the user to agree to follow it in order to gain access to corporate email, information systems, and the Internet.
Nonrepudiation
a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants do not deny their online actions.
Internet use policy
contains general principles to guide the proper use of the internet. There are many resources that make internet use necessary in a company, but there is also a lot of offensive content that makes regulation a necessity. These policies the internet that is available to users, the purpose of the internet for company functions, restrictions in place according to the company, user responsibility, and ramifications for punishment if terms are violated.
Email privacy policy
establishes the extent to which emails messages may be read by others. A major problem with email is that users expect privacy, but any one given email can be stored on up to three or four computers – even when deleted it still exists. Most big firms hold the right to read employee email and ensure that company security is not being breached by leaks. Email privacy policy typically outline s the email users, what happens to emails after the employee has left an organization, backup procedure, prevents mail bomb, presents grounds for reading email, and explains that the company has no control over email once it has left the organization.
Spam
unsolicited email. It is a problem at all levels, clogs email systems, and channel MIS resources away from legit business projects.
Anti-spam policy
merely states that users will not send unsolicited emails or spam. This is difficult to implement because there is no universal law or policy – one person's spam is another persons newsletter.
Social Media Policy
outlines the corporate guidelines or principles governing employees online communications. Companies must protect reputation by continuously monitoring blogs, message boards, social networking sites, and media sharing sites. For this reason many companies follow social networking.
Information Technology Monitoring
tracks peoples activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed. The best way a company to approach employee monitoring is through disclosure and open communication. A way that companies may go about this is employee monitoring policy (states how, when, and where the company monitors employees). Most employers do not want employees conducting personal business on company time, so they take the big brother approach.
Downtime
refers to a period of time when a system is unavailable. Downtime effects: finances, revenue, other expenses, and reputation.
Information Security
broad term for protection of information from accidental/intentional misuse by persons inside/outside the organization. This is a company's primary tool against downtime because hackers and viruses are two of the biggest issues right now.
Hackers
are technology experts who use their knowledge to break into computers for profit or just for a challenge. Hackers also use a smoke effect to gain entrance.
Virus
software written with malicious intent to either cause annoyance or damage.
Backdoor programs
opens a way into a network for future attacks
Denial-of-service attack (DoS)
floods a website with an over abundance requests for service that it crashes website or just slows it down to the point that it cannot operate.
Distributed Denial-of-Service attack (DdoS)
attacks from multiple computers that slow down or crash a website. This overload that occurs at the same time shuts down a website
Polymorphic viruses and worms
change their form as they get through different levels
Trojan-horse virus
hides inside other software (like an attachment)
Worm
can spread from file to file from computer to computer and tunnels its way into a computer. A virus needs to attach to something to get on to a computer, a worm does not need that.
Adware
software that serves a purpose, but also simultaneously allows internet advertisers to play advertisements without the consent of the computer user.
Spyware
a special kind of adware that collects data about the computer user and spreads this information all over the internet without the knowledge or permission.
First line of defense
people are the first line of defense against hackers because they are the first place that hackers start. It is important for a company to guard customer information because on average the top 20 percent of customers usually account for about 80 percent of revenue
Insiders
legitimate users who purposely or accidently misuse their access to cause some kind of business effecting incident. One example is that an employee might give up their password for misuse or place their password near their computer that leaves access to hackers wide open.
Social engineering
hackers use social skills to trick users into revealing valuable information
Dumpster diving
looking through people's trash is another way that hackers gain information
Information Security Policies
identify the rules users must follow to maintain information security (i.e. never sharing password, logging off computer when leaving office)
Information Security Plan
This details how the information security policies will be implemented. Implementation and communication are necessary.
Identity theft
forging someones identity for the purpose of fraud. Two ways to steal a persons identity are phishing and pharming. The intent of identity theft is often financial.
Phishing
a technique used for identity theft to gain personal information. This technique often uses fraudulent emails (that appear to have come from legitimate businesses) asking for verification of important information.
Pharming
reroutes requests for legitimate websites to false websites (one example would be typing in the url for your bank and being directed to another web site).
Content filtering
occurs when organizations use software that filters content, such as emails, to prevent transmission of authorized information.
Encryption
scrambles information into an unreadable form that requires a key or password to decrypt.
Public Key Encryption (PKE)
uses two keys to unlock an encryption, one is public and the other is the private key for the recipient.
Firewall
hardware and/or software that guard a private network by analyzing incoming and outgoing information for the correct markings.
Antivirus software
scans and searches hard drives to prevent, detect, and remove known viruses, adware, and spyware.
Intrusion Detection Software (IDS)
full-time monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders.
MIS Infrastructure
a plan for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets. A well done MIS structure reduces costs and improves productivity, business operations, growth, and profitability.
Hardware
physical devices associated with the computer system
Software
the specific set of instructions that is carried out by the hardware to carry out specific tasks.
Network
communication system that is created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology for communication. The bigger a company grows the more importance a network has. Most companies use a client and server network.
Client
computer designed to request information from the server
Server
a computer designated to providing informations in response to requests made by a client.
Enterprise Architect
a person who is knowledgeable in both technology and business and is an important bridge between MIS and the business. Companies employ enterprise architects to manage the change and update the MIS infrastructure.
Supporting Operations-Information MIS Infrastructure
Identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured. Supports day to day business operations while also planning for emergencies (downtime and threats).
Backup
provides an exact replica of data
Recovery
the ability to get system up and running in event in downtime or crash
Fault Tolerance
the ability for a system to deal with unexpected crashes as the backup system immediately takes up with no loss of service
Failover
the specific fault tolerance which provides the user with real-time data in the event that a primary server crashes, the user is automatically directed to the secondary server.
Failback
when the primary server recovers and takes over the secondary server
Disaster Recovery Plan
a detailed process for recovering information or asystems in the event of a disaster.
Hot site
a place that is fully functional that employees can move to to resume business in case of a disaster
Cold Site
a facility that employees can move to an event of a disaster that has no computer hardware
Warm Site
a facility that has computers, but no software and needs to be configured
Disaster Recovery Curve
examines the optimal disaster recovery plan by looking att he cost of a company recovering from a disaster and the cost to the company with unavailability of technology.
Business Continuity Plan
an all-encompassing plan that looks at how a company would recover in the face of a disaster or other disruptive event.
Emergency notification service
infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency.
Supporting Change
Agile MIS Infrastructure: includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined help support the organizations goals. If a company grows an overwhelming amount in one year, its systems must be prepared to handle that. The future of a company depends on its ability to meet with partners, suppliers, and customers anytime of the day in any location.
Accessibility
the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system.
Administrator access
MIS employees require unrestricted access to the entire system
Availability
time frames when the system is operational. A system is called unavailable when it is not operational and cannot be used. High availability is when a system is continuously operational at all times.
Maintainability/Flexibility
how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes (i.e. when an ebusiness goes global it must be able to handle multiple languages and currencies).
Portability
an application that is able to operate on different devices and softwares.
Reliability/Accuracy
system function correctly and providing accurate information. This inaccuracy can occur during the recording of information or the transfer/transmission of information.
Scalability
how a system can scale up or accommodate new growth.
Usability
the system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use.
Supporting the Environment
Sustainable MIS Infrastructure: identifies the ways that a company can grow in computing resources, without becoming more dependent on hardware and lowering energy consumption
Grid Computing
a collection of computers that are coordinated to solved a common problem. The problem is broken into many pieces and dispersed amongst machines to allow faster processing. Computers only use 25% of their processing power, linking the unused power within several machines together creates a super computer that processes intensive tasks.
Smart Grid
delivers electricity using two-way digital technology.
Cloud Computing
refers to the use of resources and applications hosted remotely on the internet. This makes it easier to gain access to the computing power that was once reserved for large corporations.
Corporate social responsibility
the companies responsibility to society.
Ewaste
discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices.
Sustainable MIS disposable
Refers to the safe disposable of MIS waste at the end of its life cycle
Data Center
facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. These are also referenced as server farms.
Information granularity
the extent of detail within the information
Real-time information
immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time systems
real-time information in response to requests. Corporations use real-time systems to uncover key transactional information. The demand for these systems stem from needing to make quicker and more effective decisions. However, real time information is not the only aspect of decision making since real-time information is continually changing.
Data inconsistency
when the same data element has different values.
Data Integrity Issues
occurs when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data.
High Quality Information
accuracy, completeness, consistency, timeliness, and uniqueness
Data Governance
refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data. A company that supports this data governance also has a policy that ensures what roles people play in producing high quality information.
Database
maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses).
Database Management System (DBMS)
creates, reads, updates, and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security. Managers send the requests to the DBMS and the DBMS responds by performing the actual manipulation of the data in the database.
Query-by-example (QBE)
graphically design the answer to a question against a database.
Structured query language (SQL)
asks users to write code in order to answer questions against a database. Managers typically interact with QBE tools and the MIS professionals have the skills for coding the SQL.
Data Element/Data Field
is the smallest or basic unit of information (i.e. a name, address, email).
Data Models
are logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures.
Metadata
provides the details about data (i.e. the meta data of a picture would be its size and resolution or for a document it would be its length, summary, and authors name).
Data dictionary
compiles the metadata about the data elements in the data model.
Relational Database Model
stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
Relational Database Management System
allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in a relational database.
Entity
this is also referred to as a table – it stores information about a person, place, thing, transaction, or event.
Attributes
the data elements associated with an entity.
Record
a collection of related data elements.
Primary Key
a field that uniquely identifies a given record in a table. i.e. the numbers that uniquely identifies each data element.
Foreign Key
This is the primary key in one table that appears as an attribute in another table and provides a logical relationship between the two tables.
Physical View
the physical storage of information on storage deals.
Logical View
how users logically access information to meet their own particular needs.
Data Redundancy
the duplication of data, or the storage of the same data in multiple places. Causes problems because employees become confused as to what is the most
Information Integrity
measure the quality of information
Integrity Constraints
rules that ensure the quality of information.
Relational Integrity constraints
rules that enforce basic and fundamental information constraints (i.e. these constraints would not allow an employee to place an order for a nonexistant customer).
Business Critical Integrity Constraints
enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require, or insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
Data-driven website
an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database.
Data Warehouse
a logical collection of information, gathered from man y different operational databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks.
Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)
process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads it into a data warehouse.
Data Mart
subset of data warehouse information.
Information cleansing
is a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
Data mining
process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
Data-mining tools
uses a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information that predict future behavior and guide decision making.
Structured data
already in database or spreadsheet
Unstructured data
do not exist in a fixed location, can be text document.
Text mining
analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
Web mining
analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation.
Cluster analysis
a technique used to divide information sets into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible.
Association detection
reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships.
Market Basket Analysis
analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers ' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choice of products and services.
Statistical Analysis
performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variable analysis
Time-series information
is the time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency (i.e. web site visits per hour, sales per month, and calls per day).
Forecasts
predictions based on time-series information