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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is reciprocal altruism?
Process of working effectively as a team to build a social system based on trust, honesty, reliability, and mutual aid.
What kind of lying and deception does nature seem to encourage?
Encourages good liars and deceptions. Lying is encouraged within a social system that values and expects truthfulness.
Why is lying and deception an inherent part of our communication?
Part of effective communication- using all available means of persuasion to obtain desired responses. It is a way of obtaining the responses we want from others or accomplishing our goals.
What is the difference between lying and deception?
Superordinate term that encompasses various fraudulent, tricky, and/or misleading behaviors (including lies).
Limited to verbal behavior, also heavily rooted in nonverbal gestures
Practically, lies and deception are defined by the way people perceive certain features of communicative acts in context
Discuss the five features that help people determine the extent to which we believe someone has lied or not and the degree of sanctioning deemed appropriate?
1. perceptions of awareness: did the person knowingly and consciously deceive? children, old ppl we like get the benefit of the doubt because "it is not like them: or "must be out of his mind" (saint versus the clown)

2. perceptions of altering information: liars will admit their awareness of doing something but deny their awareness of false info. lies of commission are lies in which the liar has altered info he knows to be true.

3. perceptions of intent: communicators intent/motive is the key factor in determining the existence and acceptability of a lie. true statement are used with deceptive intent when ppl are caught doing something they don't want to admit doing.

4. perceptions of the situation: is there anything about this particular situation that makes lying more likely? any pressure? award greater for those who lie? (ie: espionage, war, comedy)

5. perceptions of effects/consequences: who was affected and in what ways? answer may alter the extent to which we sanction.
Why should we study deceptive communication?
1. Communication
Deception is a means to an end
In our communication, we inherently leave out info
2. Consumer protection
People may prey on you if you’re unaware of deception
3. Truth
With deception, we’re trying to figure out what truth is
4. Survival
A society that’s entirely deceptive will break down
We must have a society that has a mixture of truth-tellers and deceivers
BUT it must be the surface that looks like the majority environment of truth-tellers and a few deceivers
Describe the myths associated with deception.
We underestimate our deception ability and over-estimate others detection ability.
Analyze the features associated with common definitions to deception. What are the controversies surrounding those features?
Dictionaries are not helpful in making useful distinctions either.
-Dictionaries define words by telling us how people have historically used a word, not what it “always” means.
-Words like lying and deception are not different.
-They are abstractions and can only “be” as they are perceived by specific people in specific situations.
Knapp & Comadena definition of deception
The conscious alteration of information a person believes to be true in order to significantly change another’s perceptions from what the deceiver thought they would be without the alteration
Buller & Burgoon (aka Henderson) definition of deception
The intent to deceive a target by controlling information to alter the target’s beliefs or understanding in a way which the deceiver knows is false.
Ekman definition of deception
One person intends to mislead another, doing so deliberately, without prior notification of this purpose, and without having been explicitly asked to do so by the target
Vrij definition of deception
The successful or unsuccessful deliberate attempt, without forewarning, to create in another a belief which the communicator considers to be untrue.
Define deceptive communication.
Deceptive communication is communication between at least two people with intent to change the view of reality for another.
What are the common motivations for deception by humans?
-Self-focused: positively influence you, your image, etc.
-Partner-focused: to positively influence another
-Relative-focuses: avoid negative, repetitive behavior
Describe mimicry
Mimicry - the similarity of one species to another which protects one or both

Batesian - when an animal/plant makes itself appear deadly/poisonous

Mullerian - when different species all try to mimic each other, look alike to survive
-Ex: Frogs are all colorful so they all look like the same sort of frog. Some poisonous some not.

Self - mimics a part of themselves for survival
-Ex: Owl butterfly has spots that look like eyes on the wings so that body blends into the branches.
Describe camouflage
Try to blend in, be part of background
Describe illusion
To portray if something is happening when it really isn’t, or that something isn’t happening when it really is happening
Describe the components of deceptive interactions in nonhuman species. Are these components applicable to humans?
Offensive - reproduction (sex), to get food
Defensive - to avoid threats
Effects on Target
Evasive - target doesn’t notice, deceivee isn’t aware (camouflage)
Pervasive - to confuse the target (illusion)
Morphology - size, shape, color, appearance, smell
Laecid caterpillar-ant association (sweet smell of cocoon draws protection by ants)
Behavior - actions
Praying mantis camouflages itself
Describe and contrast the four levels of deception.
Level I

Deceptive acts at this level are not adapted by the deceiver to the target
The deceiver looks or acts in a particular way because it cannot do otherwise

Level II

At this level the deceiver is more in control of the deceptive act than at level I
The deceiver’s deceptive act is triggered in response to a need and/or a particular behavior on the part of the target

Level III

Deceptive behavior at this level can be modified or repeated by the deceiver on the basis of the actions and observations of the target
Deceptions at level three are based upon trial-and-error, instrumental, and/or observational learning

Level IV

Deception at this level is not intentional (like level III) but is intentionally deceptive because the deceiver is aware that his or her actions will be misleading the target
This also means that the deceiver can, to some extent, understand what he or she is doing from the perspective of the other
Differentiate between Batesian and Mullerian mimicry.
Batesian - when an animal/plant makes itself appear deadly/poisonous
Mullerian - when different species all try to mimic each other, look alike to survive
Ex: Frogs are all colorful so they all look like the same sort of frog. Some poisonous some not.
When is deception by nonhumans unsuccessful?
When it is not performed well, not at an appropriate time or place, and targeted at one who can detect deception.
Deception is also unsuccessful in a society where truth-telling is not valued.
What are the four ways in which we determine what is true?
Truth we feel
Truth we are told
Truth we figure out through reasoning
Truth we observe
What four circumstances increase the likelihood that feelings will be judged as an important source of truth?
-Affective Judgments
E.g., liking for another person or preference
-Information Available
We rely on our feelings as a source of truth when there’s little information available.
E.g., when people are exposed to repeated information, it finds a place in their memory even if it’s not at a high level of consciousness,
When they are asked to evaluate new information similar to repeated information, feelings of familiarity result. Familiarity in turn may lead to the illusion that this information is true.
-Complex Judgments
When we try to make a complex judgment based on isolated bits and fragments of information, feelings may more likely play as a marker of truth.
-Time Constraints
Even when information is available and complex judgments are not required, time constraints or competing task demands may give preference to feelings as a way of assessing what’s true. Thus, feelings reflect a simplified heuristic strategy.
Discuss some of the errors observers make in reporting the truth.
the truth they remember is not scientifically proven to be more accurate. "change blindness" is how we do no observe large changes in objects and scenes. "inattention blindness" we do no even perceive certain highly visible objects in our visual field.

observations are also affects by numerous long term and short term characteristics of the observer - stress levels, biases/prejudices, expectations, age, gender, interest in the object of observation, motivation to observe closely. accuracy is linked to one's interest in and experience with the thing being observed.
How does observation conditions and memory affect the truth of an observation?
The Observation Conditions (photographers, filmmakers, other visual artists use these techniques)
- Certain conditions under which the observation was made will affect what is observed.
- Observation devices also enhance and/or extend our senses.

-Key factor in the truth we observe
-Memory research argues that some experiences and information we process are never stored in our brain.
-Sometimes visual memories can be hindered because we try to verbally describe what we saw prior to visually identifying it.
-How other people “help” us remember things may also be a part of the truth we observe.
Is everyone’s truth equally valid? What factors account for what is generally accepted as true?
yes. there is no truth apart from each person's own reality therefore one person's truth is as good and just as true as another's.

factors: support by many people, support by those in power, support by people whose knowledge on the issue in question is respected by many others, repeated arguments that convincingly appeal to what many others believe is reasonable or arguments that elicit a strong emotional response from many others, the preference for truths linked to human survival and well-being.
Explain some of the important factors that affect the nature of our truths, no matter how they are determined.
1 We don't perceive things exactly like anyone else
2 Most of what we know is beaded on inferences
3 Even what we know from observation is based on probabilities
4 What we know today as true may not be known as truth tomorrow
5 When we decide something is true, we label it (abstract some qualities and ignore others)
6 Human memory is fallible: not all events nor all parts of a given event are stored in the brain; that which is stored can be forgotten over time; altered by other ppl and events, or altered by one’s own changing needs
What are the two majors ways deceptive messages are created?
Lies of OMISSION - Fail to correct false belief that’s incurred by another person

Lies of COMMISSION - Lies in which the liar altered information he/she believes to be true
Describe Grice’s conversational maxim approach. What are conversational implicatures and how are they generated?
- quantity: appropriate amount
- quality: say what is true
- relation: say relevant information
- manner: concise, clear, and non-ambigious

convo implicature: inferences listeners make to help them respond appropriately
- flout: maxim is violated when an inappropriate response is made
- clash: fill one maxim at the expense of another maxim
- no violation: no maxim is violated
What is information manipulation theory?
Convert violations of conversational maxims
Secret violation (manipulation of information) so that you don’t know what’s going on
Through information control - being strategic about what information to manipulate
Think about your response to Jo (“the player” in-class exercise)
Describe the various information management dimensions.
veridicality: actual (blatant lie) and apparent (believable, plausible)
- convo maxim violated: quality

completeness: informational and conversation
- violation: quantity

directness/relevance: pragmatic/syntactic (practical, literal) and semantic (not so literal) ie: can you pass the salt? = a command
- relation

clarity: semantic

personalization: not be personal (ie: the toy fell, instead of i hit the toy and it fell)
What is equivocation and is it deceptive?
Indirect, capable of double interpretation
Ambiguous in meaning & conversationally
Situations cause equivocation
Equivocation doesn’t violate the truth or equality maxim - so it gives us the benefit of the doubt
Avoidance-avoidance situation: causes equivocation (don’t give direct answer)
Equivocation deceptive?
Depends on the intent behind the equivocation - general cultural norm to not be so direct and to equivocate
Babylis (author of this theory) says - that it isn’t deceptive
Following the absolutist position, what are the three major justifications for why it is never right to lie?
Absolutist believe that no lie is acceptable based on three ideas:

Lies, by their very nature, disrespect humanity and, like a disease, infect the liar's personality and ruin his or her integrity (aka negatively affects one’s personality).
Lying violates religious precepts. It’s a sin to lie and transgression against God's law.
Lying begets lying. one lie demands more lies.

Lies will bring about a dysfunctional society in which everyone lies all the time.
How does Bok determine if a lie is justified?
Bok believes that lying is generally bad for a liar and society in general; that ppl today lie too easily and too often; unless something is done, the frequency of lies will continue to grow, the more lies that are told, the more trust is destroyed and the more dysfunctional society becomes.
She also believes that certain lies may be acceptable if they meet the "veracity principle"
What is veracity principle?
veracity principle:
(1) no lie is permissible if the same interaction goal can be achieved with a truthful statement.
(2) the liar-in-waiting is expected to weigh the moral reasons for and against the anticipated lie by trying to put him/herself in the place of the deceived and all other affected by the lie. what excuses are there for lying and what arguments can be raised against the lie?
(3) since most excuses are designed to forgive a lie but most will not be persuasive nor can justify a lie.. to justify, one must seek the approval of fiction, independent audience of "reasonable people" who support a legal, religious, or some other type of moral code. the publicity test.
How does a Machiavellian person justify lying?
Machiavellians view lying as amoral, viewed as a function to get things done, to serve the liar’s own purposes.
The liar is the sole moral arbiter, what is “right” is what serves the liar best.

For high Machiavellian person, lying is a justified “means” to accomplish any particular “end” or goal.
Which characteristics describe a high versus a low Machiavellian type person?
High Machiavellian’s cannot afford to be emotionally involved with others

harder to manipulate others
don’t respect others very much
believe people are gullible, weak, easily persuaded, and not trustworthy
greatest good that can result for the liar

“Deception is a developed art of civilization and the most potent weapon in the game of power”
In practice, what are the two most heavily weighted aspects of a lie that affects people’s judgments about whether the lie was morally justified or not?
It is usually the liar’s motive or intent and the consequences of the lie that get the most attention and are often weighted more heavily than other factors in determining the acceptability of the lie.
Describe Knapp’s suggestions for being a “good” person.
Tell the truth most of the time
Start with goal of telling the truth as you understand it in most situations.
Recognizes that even though we will deceive others in various ways in various situations, that lying should not be thought of as the norm.
Also recognizes that telling the whole truth in certain situation may not be the most ethical thing to do.
Consider alternatives to lying
Also important to remember that just because you decide not to tell the truth doesn’t mean you need to tell a falsehood.
Reducing the number of altruistic lies (i.e., telling “tactful truths instead of reassuring lies”)
Lie selectively
Consider discovery
Assume your lies will be discovered
Consider the Golden Rule: “Do unto others as if you were the others”
Discuss the ethics involved in lie detection.
The decision to initiate detection should only be done when the target is suspected of having lied. Law enforcement agencies must have reasons to detect a lie, must have "probable cause".

Machines are not a reliable method of deception detection but a reliable method of invading someone's privacy and legal rights.
When does legislating honesty tend to work effectively?
People will follow laws, regulations, and codes of conduct that prescribe honest behavior if they are fairly and consistently enforced.
They work best when they are well known, supported by the membership, and firmly entrenched as a part of the institutional culture.
Less effective when they are viewed as largely symbolic and enforcement is weak and/or irregular.
What are the essential design features in deception studies?
Motivation to deceive: People don't spontaneously deceive, need motive
Motivation to detect: If people care if others are telling the truth or not
Situations like car sales, speaking to attorneys, surveys/participating in research study
Anticipation of detection: Do we expect it?
When you participate in a study, you anticipate deception
Sanctioned deception: Is the researcher responsible? Is the deception okay?
Social desirability aspect of if the deception is pre-approved in your study
We want natural deception in it’s purest form, yet, all the while studying it
Relational development: Mostly care about deception with family and friends
Deception often occurs in the context of a relationship, not with strangers
Verbal/non verbal: Behavior
Judge deception/detection accuracy
Ask people to rate how truthful/deceptive other person was in their messages
Transactive process
Do I let people interact with each other or not?
Describe the common procedures used to study deception.
υ Uninterrupted message presentation- give instructions and tell him to lie or tell the truth, just reply to question, no probing
υ Reaction assessments- show a scene and told to hide or reveal reaction to scene
υ Exline procedure
υ Relational interviews
υ Simulated interviews
υ Survey interviews
υ Interaction analysis
What are ethics?
Ethics address what is right or what is wrong
Standards of how we ought to behave study and development
Moral to extent they promote happiness.
Immoral if it does the reverse.
Based on consequences and results.
Is there more good than bad? Or will there be more good than bad in the end?
Does positive outweigh the negative?
Ex: Believes that “everybody does it” or that the lie benefits most people


asks us to look beyond self-interest to consider impartially the interests of all persons affected by our actions


requires that we assign values to the benefits and harms resulting from our actions and compare them with the benefits and harms that might result from other actions
can we ever be really certain about all of the consequences of our actions?
it fails to take into account considerations of justice.
Are you respecting the rights of people OR are you making exceptions for yourself?
Do people have a choice if they are involved in it?
Would it be okay if everyone did it?
Would it be okay if someone else did it to me?


The choices test reflects one of the fundamental ways of showing respect for the equality of other humans—respecting their ability to determine the course of their own lives by making choices based on what they think is valuable.
Many ethical violations in business and professional settings involve denying people information or limiting their freedom to choose.
The test reminds us that it is possible to determine what people value through direct questions, surveys, and focus groups.


Rights are considered by some to be absolute. Rights sometimes conflict with other rights and with the overall good of all those affected. Solving these conflicts means that rights might have to be subordinated.
Many people do not understand there is not a universally recognized list of rights so a person must defend his/her claim that something is a human right.
Because of its power, the rights test is sometimes applied to situations that are not serious enough to qualify as a threat to a person’s rights. This test is not helpful in ordinary circumstances.

Exceptions (Extra Slack)

Description of the action can miss the ethical issue.
People who are vicious or fanatics may agree to a world that others would find unacceptable.


It can reinforce a simplistic view of human decision making that people are clear about what they value and make rational choices based on those values.
The concept of freedom is the subject of much disagreement. The line, for example, between persuasion and coercion can be difficult to draw. When does making something look attractive take away from a person’s freedom to reject it.
Fairness and Justice
Is there a fair distribution of burdens or judgments?
Is someone being disadvantaged/targeted or singled out?

Research shows fairness to be one of the most fundamental ethical instincts in humans. It is present in many animals, including primates and dogs. Subjects will give up rewards that would make them better off than they are, if others are getting greater rewards that are not justified.


There is no single criterion for a fair distribution so the test is always open to disagreement among ethical persons.
Common Good
Is this the society you want to live in?
Are we looking out for everyone people?


It provides an important reality check for individuals and organizations. No matter how much a person or group has contributed to their own success, the test reminds them that society and the natural and technological environments also contribute to that success and that existing institutions and ideologies enable them to carry on their activities.
It is a good check on the free rider problem where the efforts of others may allow me not to contribute.


There is a great deal of disagreement over what constitutes the common good and over what relative value the parts have should they conflict.
The test runs contrary to a long-standing tradition of individualism and the pursuit of self-interest in some western societies, so it may stir up immediate resistance that could distract from the ethical issue to be resolved.
Is this the kind of person I am?
Do you see yourself as someone who is a deceiver?
Is deception one of your characteristics? Is it in your nature?


Focuses us not just on individual actions but on the larger questions of what kind of individuals and companies it is good to be and on the role that the community we are part of plays in setting those ideals.
Emphasizes that being an ethical person or an ethical company is not just a matter of following ethical rules but involves developing habits of acting in the way that we, our company, and the society think that good people and companies should act.


Psychological research suggests that most of us do not act in a consistent way across different situations, motivated by our character traits such as honesty or generosity. We are motivated more by factors in the situation, even those with no ethical significance, as when we act generously because of the good smells of a bakery or less generously because of a higher ambient noise level.
How do you make an ethical decision?
Recognize ethical issue
What is the ethical issue?
Gather facts
Evaluate alternative actions
Take the 5 standards and ask if there were ways for you to make it right.
Make decision and test it
Act and reflect on outcome
Briefly explain the rationale for the Stanley Milgram experiment.

The study measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience
Study influenced by Nazi Germany and how inherently good people could be driven and rationalized to commit atrocities if there was mutual sense of morality among those involved
Discuss the risks and benefits of using deception in a research study.

From a utilitarian perspective, opponents of the use of deception in psychological research argue that the use of deception is so widespread that many participants enter studies with a prior expectation that they will be deceived
Participant’s behaviors are distorted by their suspicious reactions, and not sufficiently guided by the instructions or the research situation at hand
Moreover, when it comes to addressing deception, there is also the possibility that participants might not believe the debriefing and/or that it may not always work
On a broader level, the widespread use of deception may potentially be harmful to the public image of psychology as a discipline. As a result, establishing trusting research relationships may prove increasingly difficult, and excessively restrictive legislation aimed at overseeing the research process may eventually be proposed
From this human values perspective, other authors argue that deceiving participants with respect to potential harms and important features of the study restricts their ability to make a self-determined and rational decisions regarding their own perspective In this way, participants right to the ethical purposes of autonomy and their ability to give informed consent for being


Deception can be utilized as a means of controlling a research situation (e.g. staging a heart attack to study bystander behavior
Establish such control is often particularly important when one aims to study socially pertinent characteristics of behavior that can only be accessed when participants are uninformed
Deception can be used a means of enhancing study validity by avoiding problematic (informed) participant responding, including negativistic responding, apprehensive responding, and socially desirable responding
Deception may also be used to misdirect participants to think the study is about a topic other than the one under investigation
In sum, the use of deceptive practices in research methodology enhances the researcher’s ability to control the research environment and elicit spontaneous behavior from research participants. In this way, deception can be used as a tool to enhance both the internal and external validity of a study
Discuss the guidelines for debriefing participants when deception has been used in a research study.
indicate how the investigator(s) will review and explain the nature of, and reasons for, the deception with the subjects.
Which skill areas do children need to master in order to lie?
• Cognitive: able to understand my own deceptive ability
• Behavioral: control over what I say and how I say it, control behavior

Understanding Intentionality
Communication Skills
How does the nature of deceiving change for children between the ages of 2-12?
when a child is 4-5 they begin to deceive however their deception is easily detected. as the child matures he/she gains cognitive ability. he/she is able to understand that people can see things differently than their way of seeing things, different perspective exist, deception can be detected if not done well, and social norms. he/she is also able to control what and how he/she says things (verbal and non-verbal skills), able to control/manage own behavior.
Why do children lie in early childhood?
The number one reason found in various studies was “to avoid punishment”
Why do they lie in adolescence?
To maintain autonomy/independence
To maintain peer group relationships
To maintain authoritative relationships
How do parents influence the probability that their children will lie?
parents are role models and children pick up little cues that prohibition against dishonest doesn't always apply to the parents. children hear their parents say they cant go out because their child is sick (and the child knows otherwise); they observe their mother tell their younger sibling that the picture is "beautiful" and later tell someone the "beautiful" remark was told to avoid hurting the son's feelings. they also learn, from their parents, that adults want them to be honest but there are times when lying and deception may be acceptable.
What are some guidelines parents should consider in response to lying?
Instead of portraying life decisions as clear, uncomplicated, and bound by certain rules that will apply to every situation, parents may want to reveal more about how they sometimes struggle with making the "right" decisions in situations involving honesty and how they go about trying "to do the right thing" - even though they aren't always sure if they are.
Guidelines for parents
Parents should consider...

Adapt responses to the life stage of the child
The extent to which parents hold their children accountable for their lies will probably increase as the child learns what behavior is acceptable and what isn’t.
Parents may want to establish experiences with their child early & often (may vary by age)
Effects of Double Standards
Parents lie, children should not
As children get older, they increasingly scrutinize this disparity.
Parents who say they lie to their very young children “for their own sake,” may find that their children increasingly see such lies as serving the parent’s needs - for example to maintain power and/or control over their child or to avoid discussing difficult topics.
Effects of “Struggling Visibly”
Instead of placing blame on others or denying a problem when they occur, parents should use them as an opportunity to teach children and serve as role models (by talking about the various factors that prompted the deception or lie, reflecting on why it occurred, and how similar situations will be handled in the future).
Effects of Reciprocity
Parental honesty may encourage honesty, trust, and respect.
Parental dishonesty begets dishonesty, suspicion, and distrust.
Effects of Extreme Emotional Reactions
Fear of parent’s intense anger is one of the prime reasons children lie.
Parental goal should be to understand what led to the child’s lie and work with them on ways to change future behavior.
How does role-taking affect deception detection in children?
At all ages, children who are better able to put themselves in the position of the communicator being judged (role-taking) are likely to be capable of better detection.
What cues do children rely upon to detect deception?
5-16: rely on perceived inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal behavior.
4th and 6th graders (but not 2nd graders): more likely to use indirect eye gaze and active limb movements as signs of deception.
4 & 5 yr olds: use eye gaze as a cue when someone hides something and then looks at it.
2nd, 4th, 6th graders: eye gaze, smiling, and pitch relied upon most frequently

6th graders: preferred offering a suspected liar a promise of confidentiality in order to uncover deception, in comparison to younger (2nd &4th) preferred to observe behavioral signs to find out if someone was lying.
What are common ways that adult interviewers exert influence over the recollections of children?
Not uncommon for adult interviewers to use leading questions and show children dolls with realistic genitalia (“Did he touch you here?”)
Coercion (e.g., praising kids who confirmed the offenses and bizarre happenings and telling those who didn’t that they were “dumb”)
Children sometimes are first being “coached” (intentionally or not)
What are some guidelines for obtaining accurate child testimony?
Establish pleasant surroundings for the child

Begin the interview with rapport-building small talk (unrelated to the testimony)
During this phase, the interviewer may want to demystify the legal context and allay fears associated with it.
Begin by asking the child open-ended question about what is remembered about the incident in question. Let them talk uninterrupted.
Children often respond w/o much elaboration so questioning is next. Interviewer should understand that even though probing is likely to elicit more information, it may also increase the chances that the child will provide more incorrect information.
Interviewers should do everything they can to avoid leading questions, use appropriate age-adapted language, avoid condescension, accusation, or intimidation, and be open to more than one explanation of what happened.
Conclude the interview on a positive note and with a brief summary of how the child's testimony is understood.
At what age can children deceive?
4-5 years old: research shows there is enough intellectual capacity to develop deception skills
Start to understand the dynamics & social context of deception
11-12 years old:
They are so good at it, it is harder to detect their lies
Good enough to deceive well
Why do severe negative reactions by parents to lying behavior by children actually encourage children to lie?
Extreme emotional reactions to unpleasant truths may establish a level of fear that causes the child to do anything to avoid it. A child may think that the punishment for telling the truth is as great as it will be if a lie is uncovered, so why not take a chance that the lie won’t be discovered.
Why do parents lie to children?
Parents lie to encourage their children
Honesty in the face of dishonesty
Parental motivations - their explanations to deceive their children
1st motivation (PRIMARY)
To protect their children, to keep them safe
Parents say it is okay to lie to strangers
2nd motivation
To avoid talking about difficult/uncomfortable topics
The stork brings babies to people
Parents regarding their own self-discomfort
3rd motivation
To maintain power & control over children
Parents are all knowing and threaten their children to gain compliance
“I’ll always know what you’re doing”
What are some differences between the lies told by men and women?
Men are more likely to tell self-oriented lies
To protect themselves, for self-benefit

Women tell more other-oriented lies
To protect others
Example: Blind-date/First date context
Men lie about: income, job (earning potential)
Women lie about: adjusting physical appearance
No significant difference in frequency for men and women
How do people who are high on Machiavellianism approach deception?
More likely to tell you they lied
Machiavellians lie to achieve some kind of goal or purpose
Tend not to conform to always being truthful
Choose their victims wisely, who won’t retaliate against them
Discuss the difference between extraverts and introverts as it relates to deception.
Lie more than introverts
More conscious of social norms/expectations (bc they are more sociable)
Want to seem likeable, to make good impression

More honest - tend not to deceive due to not being concerned about other’s and their perception of them
Are more socially awkward and don’t pay as much attention to social norms
What is public self-consciousness and do those who are high on public self-consciousness tell lies?
Aware that other people are judging, scrutinizing them
Care about what others think about them
High self-conscious lie more than low self-conscious people
High self-conscious people constantly mold themselves to fit different audiences & situations
Are actors and socially skilled individuals more skilled in deception? Explain.
Actors and socially skilled individuals tend to be better liars because they have more practice and more opportunities to refine their skills.
Acting abilities tend to enable them to deceive people more.
Discuss the different views of and approaches to “deception” by people who are from an independent and collectivistic culture
collectivistic/interdependent cultures
more willing to tell blatant lies than indirect lies.. indirect lies potentially arouse suspicion
truth is constructed within context of situations
tact and politeness are highly valued and lying may be deemed necessary

truth is like a law, so lying is extremely bad, if you lie and deceive then it is more anxiety building, "lies are so unethical!"
truth is absolute- seen as black or white
believe that people who lie should feel guilty or anxiety toward deception
accusatory of collectivist cultures to be “so fake!”
Explain the leakage hierarchy.
Leakage Hypothesis
- explanation of what goes on when deception occurs
- people are going to leak which reveal their deceptive behavior
- attempting to control ourselves to be able to avoid being detected with regard to our deception

-Decision points
- controllability: you can manipulate it if you're in control of it; something one can replicate
- sending capacity: if you can do multiple things with your face/body then ones’ sending capacity is high and hard to examine or research

-Leakage Hierarchy
- facial cues: are least leaky because you can control your face; generally don’t leak deceptions
- bodily and vocal cues: more difficult to control.
Explain the multifactor theory of deception.
1. Attempted control
-when you try to deceive someone else you try to control your behavior
(ie. movement to look calm, authentic, etc.) when you try do one aspect another falls away.
2. Arousal
-autonomic arousal (perspiration, heart reate increases, etc.)
-reliant on past conditioning
3. Affective reaction
-feelings are experienced (guilt and anxiety) (under researched - amount of delight or glee, if successful)
4. Cognitive processing effort
-deception is more taxing than telling the truth
-must monitor ourselves in front of others
-crafting messages and making sure we stick to the story
Explain the assumptions and key factors in interpersonal deception theory
1. complex conversations
- attending to a lot of different goals, functions, its multi-modal
2. cognitive and behavioral factors
- stuff that you're thinking or doing with your body that affect the deception process
- goals, thoughts, and behavioral reactions
3. strategic and non strategic elements
- things that you do on purpose to get away with deception
- some things leak, lair doesn't intent to do these things
- goals and inadvertent elements of communication
4. deception occurs in conversations

- between two people
- exclude self deception
5. focus on deceit and suspicion
- HOW we craft deceit
- deception doesn’t happen by itself, but in the context of conversation

1. context and relationship
2. Preinteraction
- what happens prior to the interaction,, things we bring to the conversation with us
3. Interaction
- things that happen when we are in a conversation
4. Post-interaction
- things we take away from our conversation
Why do people engage in self-deception?
The idea of having a unitary self that houses a vast array of thoughts, feelings, and perceptions creates a pressure for consistency.
self-deception is a mechanism to help maintain our complicated and jumbled lives (we have many social selves - self at work, self at school, self at home)
Each self includes social and psychological demands that are more easily managed with self-deception
Explain the self-enhancement bias and how we distort data in pursuit of a favorable view of the self.
The need to think well of ourselves, as more decent, generous, competent, smart, respected, loved, in control, and so on, than we really are is probably an indispensable part of effectively negotiating everyday life.

dealing with positive and negative feedback - we take more credit for praise than failures and attribute success to our own abilities and blame failures on others
comparing our self to others - we compare ourselves to those who make us look good and view “out groups” as less worthy
trait identification - we sort through memories in a biased way and tend to think our good traits are unusual while our faults are common
What is the self-consistency bias?
Self-consistency bias is our tendency to seek reconciliation for an action or behavior that makes us experience dissonance or disharmony
Distinguish between denial, rationalization, repression, dissociation, and projection.
Denial: The refusal to attend to something. Even though the self-deceiver may be initially conscious of the thing being denied, the ultimate goal of denial is to keep the disagreeable information out of awareness in order to enhance or protect self-esteem.
Rationalization: We rationalize irrational and/or inconsistent acts, beliefs, and feelings to our self in order to justify self-deception. Often this intrapersonal justification is done at a subconscious level and the self-deceiver may not know exactly how he or she has rationalized a particular behavior unless they are forced to overtly confront it in a social context.
Repression: Describes what happens when a person mentally blocks ideas and feelings for reaching consciousness. They are ideas and feelings that are likely to cause pain, anxiety, or threat. It is a motivated amnesia or an unwillingness to recall
Dissociation: This is a psychological process involving the separation or isolation of mental content--psychologically removing the links, connections, or associations to related content. We may be quite aware of the troubling behavior, belief, or emotion but not willing to acknowledge its relevance to other parts of one’s self with which it is not compatible.
Projection: A self-defense mechanism that deals with unpleasant and unacknowledged realities by misattributing them to others (e.g., a manager who is unwilling to admit his own incompetence blames his failures on the fact that his employees are incompetent.