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84 Cards in this Set

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What organism is primarily responsible for dental caries?
Streptococcus mutans
What organism is primarily responsible for periodontal disease?
Porphyromonas spp.
What organism is responsible for Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?
Prevotella intermedia
What term describes when a pathogen enters the GI tract and multiples?
Infection
What term describes when the ingestion of a preformed toxin causes disease?
Intoxication
What term describes sever diarrhea accompanied by blood or mucous?
Dysentery
What type of food poising often occurs on sugary creamy foods?
Staphylococcus Food poising or Staphylococcal enterotoxicosis (enterotoxin by S. aureus causes intoxication)
What is Shingellosis called?
Bacillary dysentery
What is the most common Shigella in the US that causes mild diarrhea?
Shingella sonnei
What is the the therapy for Shigella dysenteriae?
Oral rehydration, antibiotic
What disease does S. typhimurium and S. enteritica cause?
Salmonellosis or Salmonella gastroeneteritis
What is the treatment for Salmonellosis?
oral rehydration
What microbe causes Typhoid fever?
Salmonella typhi
How is Salmonella typhi transmitted?
Fecal-oral, only person to person
What is the treatment for Typhoid fever?
Antibiotics, oral rehydration
What is the microbe that causes Cholera?
Vibrio cholerae (gram neg that makes exotoxin "cholera toxin")
What are the signs of cholera?
Rice water diarrhea, violent vomiting, NO FEVER usually
What is the treatment for cholera?
Replacement of fluids and electrolytes
What microbes can cause Traveler's diarrhea?
Shigella, Campylobacter, protozoans, and viruses (rota and noro)
What extra characteristics do pathogenic E coli normally have?
Produce toxins and have specialized fimbriae
What does EHEC stand for?
Enterohemorrhagic E Coli
What does STEC stand for?
Shiga-toxin E Coli
What is the Serotype of E Coli found in the US that produces the Shiga toxin?
0157:H7
What is a causative agent of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?
0157:H7 E coli. Blood is found in urine, kidney failure occurs due to toxin
What is the organism found in most retail chicken that can cause gastroenteritis?
Campylobacter spp
What microbe is associated with peptic ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
What group is found to be susceptible to cholera and H. pylori?
Blood group O
What is the treatment for H pylori?
Antibiotics with bismuth subsalicylate
What is the treatment for C. difficile?
Metronidazole
What are the S&S for Clostridium difficile?
From mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis with ulceration
What are the descriptive characteristics of Clostridium difficile?
Gram pos bacillus, endospore forming, anaerobe, exotoxin forming
What are the S&S for Hep A?
Vary; malaise, nausea, diarrhea, fever, chills, jaundice, or asymptomatic
What family is Hep A in?
Picornaviridae
How is Hep A transmitted?
Fecal oral
Does Hep A have a chronic, acute, or both stages?
Only acute
Is there prophylaxis for Hep A and if so what?
Yes, vaccine and IgM antibodies
What family is Hep B in?
Hepadnaviridae (uses reverse transcriptase)
How is Hep B transmitted?
Parentally/sexual contact
Does Hep B have a chronic phase?
Yes, increase liver cancer occurrence by 200%
Does Hep B have prophylaxis?
Yes, genetically made vaccine (in yeast) and Hep B IgM antibodies
What is the family for Hep C?
Flaviviridae
What is the method of transmission for Hep C?
Parentally/Body fluids
Does Hep C have prophylaxis?
No, but can be treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribivirn
Does Hep C have a chronic phase?
Yes
What is the family for Hep D?
Deltaviridae
What is the method of transmission for Hep D?
Parentally, requires coinfection with Hep B
Does Hep D have a chronic phase?
It may. Usually very severe disesase with high mortality rate
Does Hep D have prophylaxis?
Yes, Hep B vaccine or IgM of HBV
What is the family of Hep E?
Caliciviridae
What is the method of transmission for Hep E?
Ingestion
Does Hep E have a chronic phase?
No
Does Hep E have prophylaxis?
Yes, IgM antibodies and HAV vaccine
What are the usual causative microbes of Viral gastroenteritis?
Noroviruses and rotaviruses
What is the treatment for viral gastroenteritis?
Oral rehydration
What are the two protozoan disease of the GI mentioned in ch 25?
Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis
What is the causative microbe in Giardiasis?
Giardia lambila
What is the causative microbe in Cryptosporidiosis?
Cryptosporidium spp.
What are the S&S for Giardiasis?
Prolonged diarrhea, malaise, weight loss, nausea, flatulense, H2s odor on breath
What is the method of transmission for Giardiasis?
contaminated water
What is the treatment for Giardia or Cryptosporidium?
Nitrazoxanide (Alina)
What is the method of transmission for Cryptosporidiosis?
contaminated water
What is name for a beef tapeworm?
Taenia saginata
What is the name for a pork tapeworm?
Taenia solium
Is Taenia solium transmitted as a larvae or a egg?
Pork tapeworm is transmitted as an egg. Once ingested it develops into larvae in human tissues such as eye or CNS
Are Taenia saginata and fish tapeworms transmitted as larvae or eggs?
Beef tapeworms and fish tapeworms are transmitted as larvae in undercooked meats. The become an egg producing adult in the intestine
What is the treatment for tapeworms?
Tapeworms are treated with antihelminthics (praziquantel, albendazole) and may require surgery for neurocysticercosis
What is Ascariasis?
Helminthic disease of Ascaris - a foot long worm that occurs after ingesting eggs from fecal matter. Treatment: Mebendazole
How is hookworm transmitted?
Can be from walking around outside barefoot. Treatment:mebendazole
Describe a pinworm
Its an enterobius - a small worm that lays eggs around the anus at night. Can be treated with Pyrantel pamoate
What is the causative microbe of Trichinellosis/Trichinosis?
Trichinella spiralis
What is the treatment for Trichinellosis?
Antihelminthics(mebendazole) & corticosteroids
How is Trichinella spiralis transmitted?
Rare pork. Can cause larvae in muscle tissue and may be fatal in large infections
What tissue does mumps effect?
Parotid glands. Can cause inflammation of testes.
Is there any prophylaxis for mumps?
Yes, MMR vaccine
What is the family for mumps?
Paramyxoviridae
What is the causative agent for cyclospora diarrhea?
Cyclospora cayetanensis
How is cyclospora cayetanensis transmitted?
Contaminated water, berries, uncooked food
What is the treatment for cyclospora diarrhea?
Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
What is the causative agent of Ergot poisoning?
Claviceps Purpurea (causes hallucinations)
What is the treatment for Ergot poisoning?
None
What is the method of transmission of Ergot Poisoning?
Mycotoxin produced by fungus on grains
What is the causative agent of Aflatoxin poisoning?
aspergillus flavus (can cause liver cirrhosis)
What is the treatment for Aflatoxin poisoning?
none
What is the method of transmission of Aflatoxin poisoning?
Mycotoxin produced by fungus on food