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66 Cards in this Set

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dust from dry dirt that holds a pathogen



what is inanimate dust?

what are the four structures of the upper respiratory system?

1) nasal cavity


2) auditory tube opening


3) pharynx


4) uvula

what are the six structures of the lower respiratory system?

1) epiglottis


2) larynx


3) trachea


4) pleurae


5) bronchus


6) bronchiole

what are three upper respiratory diseases caused by bacteria?

1) Streptococcal pharyngitis (Strep throat)


2) Scarlet fever


3) Diptheria



what are three lower respiratory diseases caused by bacteria?

1) tuberculosis


2) bacterial pneumonias


3) Legionnaires' Disease

causative agent of strep throat?

Streptococcus pyogenes (gram positive cocci)

transmission of strep throat?

airborne droplets



symptoms of strep throat? (3)

-fever, but no runny nose


-red pharyngeal tissues from tissue erosion


-purulent (pus containing) abscesses covering tonsils

pathogenicity/virulence factors for strep throat? (3)

-M protein: destabalizes complement (C3b) & retards phagocytosis


-streptokinase: breaks blood clots allowing bacteria to spread


-streptolysin: lyses RBCs, WBCs, and platelets



how do you classify Streptococci bacteria?

they are based on hemolytic properties and cell wall carbohydrates

three hemolytic properties of Streptococci

gamma hemolytic: no effect. no change

alpha hemolytic: olive green cells viridans streptococci (endocarditis)


beta hemolytic: complete lysis



what are carbohydrate substances?

designated groups A-O, also known as Lancefield groupls

what are the worst streptococci for humans?


what is the most common type of this bacteria?

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci


Streptococcus pyogenes



what are 3 other conditions resulting from pathogenic Streptococcus?

1) scarlet fever


2) erysipelas


3) necrotizing fasciitis



Streptococcus bacteria invade and attack fascia and then your muscle cells

what is necrotizing fasciitis?

what is the causative agent of scarlet fever?

Streptococcus pyogenes with a lysogenized bacteriophage

what does the scarlet fever bacteriophage genome do?

encodes erythrogenic toxin, which breaks capillaries

symptoms of scarlet fever?

-red rash caused by blood leaking though walls of capillaries damaged by toxin


-rash at mouth, neck, chest

acute infection of dermal layer with Streptococcus

what is erysipelas?

symptoms of erysipelas?

painful reddish patches recur periodically at the same body site



who does erysipelas usually afflict? (2)

-people over the age of 30 with a history of strep throat


-infants with a weak immune system

causative agent of diphtheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (gram positive, rod with metachromatic granules)

explain Cornebacterium diphtheriae division

remains particially attached after division yielding an angular or palisade arrangement

transmission of diphtheria

inhaling respiratory droplets near tonsils

pathogenicity of diphtheria

exotoxin encoded by lysogenic corynephage (bacteriophages that infect corynebacterium)

what two polypeptides is the toxin in diphtheria composed of?

-one binds human growth factor receptor on human cell triggering endocytosis


-other one destroys eukaryotic elongation factor, blocks protein synthesis

symptoms of diphtheria

pseudomembrane which results in respiratory blockage

what is a pseudomembrane made up of? (3)

-mucus


-dead cells


-fibrous material

treatment of diphtheria?


treatment in severe cases?

-antitoxin and antibiotics


-vaccinate with DTaP


insert tracheostomy tube



Causative agent of Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

What disease causes more deaths in developing countries compared to any other bacterial disease?

tuberculosis

what are unique characteristics of Mycobacterium? (5)

1) cell wall contains a waxy lipid called mycolic acid


2) slow growth


3) protection from lysis after phagocytosis


4) capacity for intracellular growth


5) resistance to:


-gram staining (only stain from acid-fast procedure


-detergents


-many antimicrobial drugs


-dessication

transmission of tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhaled into lungs usually through multiple exposures

pathogenicity/virulence factors of tuberculosis

-mycolic acid: protects bacteria from lysis once phagocytosed


-cord factor: daughter cells remain attached to one another in parallel arrangement. inhibits migration of neutrophils, and is toxic to mammalian cells

What tuberculosis involves formation of tubercles?

primary tuberculosis

development of tubercle in the lung (5)

1) 5-10 bacteria in droplet


2) macrophage engulfs bacteria (bacteria block fusion of phagosome and lysosome)


3) bacteria replicate inside macrophage


4) tubercle froms


5) cells at center of tubercle die -> caseous necrosis

how many people get sick from tuberculosis?

-10% very ill in 3 months

-90% just get fever and weight loss



three things part of tubercle formation

1) living bacteria


2) white blood cells


3) fibrous materials



symptoms of tuberculosis

-blood in sputum


-cough


-chest pain


-fever


-weight loss

when tubercles break and spread in the lungs, common with immunosuppression

what is secondary/reactivated tuberculosis?


when the tubercle may break and spread bacteria via lymph and blood to liver, kidneys, meninges, and bone marrow (leads to "consumption" of tissues)

what is disseminated/military tuberculosis?

diagnosis of tuberculosis

-detection in sputum sample


-tuberculin (Purified Protein Derivative) skin test: injection of 0.1mL of M. tuberculosis cell wall antigens


-x-ray to detect tubercles

treatment of tuberculosis



-combination therapy:


-use of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol for 6 months-DOTS: Directly Observed TreatmentShortcourse

what are new threats for tuberculosis? (2)

1) MDR-TB: multi-drug resistant


2) XDR-TB: extensively drug resistant

prevention of tuberculosis?

-immunization of BCG vaccine where TB is common


-no vaccine is available in US

what is pneumonia?

inflammation of the lungs. alveoli and bronchioles become filled with fluid

when the fluid in alveoli is pus

what is empynema

when the pleurae become inflammed

what is pneumonia pleurisy?

causative agent of pneumococcal pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae gram positive and encapsulated

transmission of pneumococcal pneumonia

airborne droplets

symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia (3)

-fever


-fatigue


-hacking cough

pathogenicity/virulence of pneumoccocal pneumonia (3)

-capsule preventing phagocytosis


-pneumolysin: binds cholesterol in ciliated epithelial cells causing lysis of cells


-IgA protease: destroys IgA in mucus, damage to lining of alveoli allows fluid to enter lungs

who is mostly affected by pneumococcal pneumonia? (6)

-compromised affected elderly


-malnourished


-smokers


-viral-infected


-immune suppressed


-hospital patients



what type of disease is pneumococcal pneumonia?

secondary disease

causative agent of primary atypical pneumonia?




what is unique about it?

-Mycoplama pneumoniae


-no cell wall & pleomorphic (many shapes)




-one of the smallest bacteria to cause human disease

where does primary atypical pneumonia cause epidemics?

crowded places

who does primary atypical pneumonia usually affect?

healthy high school and college students



pathogenicity of primary atypical pneumonia? (2)

-bacteria attach to base of cilia causing them to stop beating


-colonization destroys epithlial cells lining respiratory tract



what type of morphology does primary atypical pneumonia have?

"fried egg" morphology

what is another name for Legionnaire's Disease?




where does it get its name from?

-Legionellosis




-1976 outbreak amongst Legionnaires at a conference in Philidelphia

causative agent of Legionnaire's disease?

-Legionella pneumophila gram negative, rod

transmission of Legionnaire's disease?

-exists where water collects: air conditioners, puddles humidifiers



symptoms of legionnaire's disease (4)

-fever


-dry cough


-fatigue


-complications of GI tract, nervous system, liver, or kidney

pathogenicity of legionnaire's disease (2)

-intracellular parasite of macrophages/other cells (waterborne protozoa)


-causes tissue destruction and inflammation of the lungs

treatment of legionnaire's disease

treat water source with chlorine or heat

what are ways to prevent airborne disease? (3)

1) eradication or control of source


-disposal of contaminated material


-confinement of patients/microbial therapy


2) vaccination


3) block access of pathogen to susceptible individuals


-wear masks and goggles


-employ therapies to reduce coughing & sneezing


-wash hands