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31 Cards in this Set

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Proof that microbes have been around for millions of years

Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mummy

symbiotic relationships between humans/animals and microorganisms

humans: stapholococcus on skin

animals: ruminant digestion (bacteria in animals' stomachs break down cellulose in plants)



Types of Microbes (3, with examples)

1. Viruses (acellular, have DNA or RNA)

2. Prokaryotes (bacteria, Archaea)

3. Eukaryotes (Protozoa, fungi, animals, plants)


eat other animals/plants to get energy rather than making their own

Spontaneous generation

(started with Aristotle) theory that life forms could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter

biogenesis/cell theory

All living things are made of cells (Hooke, 1665)

Living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells (Virchow, 1855)

Proven by Pasteur

Francisco Redi (& his experiment)


Published biogenesis paper countering spontaneous generatin

Experiment: maggots could not penetrate covers on jars of raw meat, so they did not arise from the meat itself


1665- developed cell theory

English; minister father; researcher

Crude compound microscope--saw compartments in cork, named them cells

Van Leeuwenhoek

Dutch; merchant

constructed simple microscopes

1673--first documented and described bacteria & sent documentation to Royal Society of London


English Clergyman

1745--boiled nutrient broth, cooled and sealed

found microorganisms in broth


Italian priest

1765--boiled nutrient broth, sealed immediately and heated

no microbes found



French; father of modern chemistry

Discovered oxygen

Criticized Spallanzani by saying that lack of microorganisms was caused by lack of oxygen`

Pasteur (bio)


French; tanner's son; earned science PhD

Father of microbiology--showed link between food spoilage and microbes

Pasteur's ideas

Microorganisms are present in air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but air itself doesn't create microbes

Does air create microbes?

Pasteur's experiment

Poured boiled broth into flasks with necks in S-shaped curves. Air passed into flask, but curved necks trapped airborne microorganisms.

Pasteur's conclusions

Microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter (solids, liquids, air)

Microbes can be destroyed by heat

We can block access of microbes to nutrient environments (aseptic techniques)

Pasteur's findings on alcohol

Yeasts convert sugars to alcohol in the absence of air (fermentation)

In the presence of air, bacteria change the alcohol to vinegar



heat liquid just enough to kill the bacteria that cause spoilage (milk and alcohol)

Golden age of microbiology


Founders: Pasteur and Koch

Microbiology became a separate science

Linked microbes to food spoilage and disease

connected microbes to what two conditions?

Germ theory of disease

Microorganisms cause disease (suspected by Pasteur; proven by Koch.)

Joseph Lister

1860s--treated surgical wounds with a phenol (carbolic acid) to kill bacteria

With Semmelweis, linked washing hands/tools to reduced infections

Robert Koch

-German physician and researcher

-Linked specific diseases to specific microbes

-Developed staining

-Photographed microbes

Koch's postulates (4)

1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease

2. The pathogen must be isolated from the disease host and grown in pure culture

3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal.

4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and shown to be the original organism.

Exceptions to Koch's postulates

1. Leprosy (can't be grown in pure culture; infects only humans and armadillos.)

2. Syphilis (can't be grown in pure culture)

How does washing between patients reduce disease?

By killing and/or physically removing bacteria

What are some diseases caused by microbes?



pneumococcal pneumonia


whooping cough

Edward Jenner

1796--Developed smallpox vaccination by scratching patient's arm with a cowpox-contaminated needle


Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms

synthetic drugs

chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the lab (ex: salvarsan for syphilis, from arsenic--1910)

sulfa drugs

Deliberately developed in labs from a series of industrial chemicals in dye derivatives


1928--Discovered that culture plates contaminated by penicillin mold inhibited the growth of bacteria