Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Proof that microbes have been around for millions of years

Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mummy

symbiotic relationships between humans/animals and microorganisms

humans: stapholococcus on skin


animals: ruminant digestion (bacteria in animals' stomachs break down cellulose in plants)

skin


ruminants

Types of Microbes (3, with examples)

1. Viruses (acellular, have DNA or RNA)


2. Prokaryotes (bacteria, Archaea)


3. Eukaryotes (Protozoa, fungi, animals, plants)

heterotrophic

eat other animals/plants to get energy rather than making their own

Spontaneous generation

(started with Aristotle) theory that life forms could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter

biogenesis/cell theory

All living things are made of cells (Hooke, 1665)




Living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells (Virchow, 1855)




Proven by Pasteur



Francisco Redi (& his experiment)

1626-1698


Published biogenesis paper countering spontaneous generatin




Experiment: maggots could not penetrate covers on jars of raw meat, so they did not arise from the meat itself

Hooke

1665- developed cell theory



English; minister father; researcher




Crude compound microscope--saw compartments in cork, named them cells


Van Leeuwenhoek

Dutch; merchant


constructed simple microscopes




1673--first documented and described bacteria & sent documentation to Royal Society of London

Needham

English Clergyman


1745--boiled nutrient broth, cooled and sealed




found microorganisms in broth



Spallanzani

Italian priest


1765--boiled nutrient broth, sealed immediately and heated




no microbes found

Lavoisier

1743-1794


French; father of modern chemistry


Discovered oxygen


Criticized Spallanzani by saying that lack of microorganisms was caused by lack of oxygen`

Pasteur (bio)

1822-1895


French; tanner's son; earned science PhD


Father of microbiology--showed link between food spoilage and microbes

Pasteur's ideas

Microorganisms are present in air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but air itself doesn't create microbes

Does air create microbes?





Pasteur's experiment

Poured boiled broth into flasks with necks in S-shaped curves. Air passed into flask, but curved necks trapped airborne microorganisms.

Pasteur's conclusions

Microorganisms can be present in nonliving matter (solids, liquids, air)



Microbes can be destroyed by heat




We can block access of microbes to nutrient environments (aseptic techniques)



Pasteur's findings on alcohol

Yeasts convert sugars to alcohol in the absence of air (fermentation)




In the presence of air, bacteria change the alcohol to vinegar

yeast

Pasteurization

heat liquid just enough to kill the bacteria that cause spoilage (milk and alcohol)

Golden age of microbiology

1857-1914


Founders: Pasteur and Koch


Microbiology became a separate science


Linked microbes to food spoilage and disease

connected microbes to what two conditions?

Germ theory of disease

Microorganisms cause disease (suspected by Pasteur; proven by Koch.)

Joseph Lister

1860s--treated surgical wounds with a phenol (carbolic acid) to kill bacteria




With Semmelweis, linked washing hands/tools to reduced infections

Robert Koch

-German physician and researcher


-Linked specific diseases to specific microbes


-Developed staining


-Photographed microbes



Koch's postulates (4)

1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease


2. The pathogen must be isolated from the disease host and grown in pure culture


3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal.


4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and shown to be the original organism.

Exceptions to Koch's postulates

1. Leprosy (can't be grown in pure culture; infects only humans and armadillos.)




2. Syphilis (can't be grown in pure culture)

How does washing between patients reduce disease?

By killing and/or physically removing bacteria

What are some diseases caused by microbes?

anthrax


syphilis


pneumococcal pneumonia


tuberculosis


whooping cough

Edward Jenner

1796--Developed smallpox vaccination by scratching patient's arm with a cowpox-contaminated needle

antibiotics

Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms

synthetic drugs

chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the lab (ex: salvarsan for syphilis, from arsenic--1910)



sulfa drugs

Deliberately developed in labs from a series of industrial chemicals in dye derivatives

Fleming

1928--Discovered that culture plates contaminated by penicillin mold inhibited the growth of bacteria